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As vertebrate genome sequences near completion and research refocuses to their analysis, the issue of effective genome annotation display becomes critical. A mature web tool for rapid and reliable display of any requested portion of the genome at any scale, together with several dozen aligned annotation tracks, is provided at http://genome.ucsc.edu. This(More)
We define a "threaded blockset," which is a novel generalization of the classic notion of a multiple alignment. A new computer program called TBA (for "threaded blockset aligner") builds a threaded blockset under the assumption that all matching segments occur in the same order and orientation in the given sequences; inversions and duplications are not(More)
The University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) Genome Browser Database is an up to date source for genome sequence data integrated with a large collection of related annotations. The database is optimized to support fast interactive performance with the web-based UCSC Genome Browser, a tool built on top of the database for rapid visualization and querying(More)
The University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) Table Browser (http://genome.ucsc.edu/cgi-bin/hgText) provides text-based access to a large collection of genome assemblies and annotation data stored in the Genome Browser Database. A flexible alternative to the graphical-based Genome Browser, this tool offers an enhanced level of query support that includes(More)
Levels of recombination vary among species, among chromosomes within species, and among regions within chromosomes in mammals. This heterogeneity may affect levels of diversity, efficiency of selection, and genome composition, as well as have practical consequences for the genetic mapping of traits. We compared the genetic maps to the genome sequence(More)
Six measures of evolutionary change in the human genome were studied, three derived from the aligned human and mouse genomes in conjunction with the Mouse Genome Sequencing Consortium, consisting of (1) nucleotide substitution per fourfold degenerate site in coding regions, (2) nucleotide substitution per site in relics of transposable elements active only(More)
Current human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) vaccines elicit strain-specific neutralizing antibodies. However, cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies arise in approximately 20% of HIV-1-infected individuals, and details of their generation could provide a blueprint for effective vaccination. Here we report the isolation, evolution and structure of a(More)
The ENCODE project is an international consortium with a goal of cataloguing all the functional elements in the human genome. The ENCODE Data Coordination Center (DCC) at the University of California, Santa Cruz serves as the central repository for ENCODE data. In this role, the DCC offers a collection of high-throughput, genome-wide data generated with(More)
We present an algorithm for compressing 2D vector fields that preserves topology. Our approach is to simplify the given data set using constrained clustering. We employ different types of global and local error metrics including the earth mover's distance metric to measure the degradation in topology as well as weighted magnitude and angular errors. As a(More)
The rates at which human genomic DNA changes by neutral substitution and insertion of certain families of transposable elements covary in large, megabase-sized segments. We used the rat, mouse, and human genomic DNA sequences to examine these processes in more detail in comparisons over both shorter (rat-mouse) and longer (rodent-primate) times, and(More)