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Cyan fluorescent proteins (CFPs), such as Cerulean, are widely used as donor fluorophores in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments. Nonetheless, the most widely used variants suffer from drawbacks that include low quantum yields and unstable flurorescence. To improve the fluorescence properties of Cerulean, we used the X-ray structure to(More)
The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp120, undergoes multiple molecular interactions and structural rearrangements during the course of host cell attachment and viral entry, which are being increasingly defined at the atomic level using isolated proteins. In comparison, antigenic markers of these dynamic changes are essentially unknown for single HIV-1(More)
Viral genome packaging into capsids is powered by high-force-generating motor proteins. In the presence of all packaging components, ATP-powered translocation in vitro expels all detectable tightly bound YOYO-1 dye from packaged short dsDNA substrates and removes all aminoacridine dye from packaged genomic DNA in vivo. In contrast, in the absence of(More)
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