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Cyan fluorescent proteins (CFPs), such as Cerulean, are widely used as donor fluorophores in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments. Nonetheless, the most widely used variants suffer from drawbacks that include low quantum yields and unstable flurorescence. To improve the fluorescence properties of Cerulean, we used the X-ray structure to(More)
BACKGROUND Kinesin II-mediated anterograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) is essential for the assembly and maintenance of flagella and cilia in various cell types. Kinesin associated protein (KAP) is identified as the non-motor accessory subunit of Kinesin II, but its role in the corresponding motor function is not understood. RESULTS We show that(More)
KLP64D and KLP68D are members of the kinesin-II family of proteins in Drosophila. Immunostaining for KLP68D and ribonucleic acid in situ hybridization for KLP64D demonstrated their preferential expression in cholinergic neurons. KLP68D was also found to accumulate in cholinergic neurons in axonal obstructions caused by the loss of kinesin light chain.(More)
We have identified the Drosophila homologue of the non-motor accessory subunit of kinesin-II motor complex. It is homologous to the SpKAP115 of the sea urchin, KAP3A and KAP3B of the mouse, and SMAP protein in humans. In situ hybridization using a DmKAP specific cRNA probe has revealed a dynamic pattern of expression in the developing nervous system. The(More)
We use finite-difference time-domain calculations to show that aluminum nanoparticles are efficient substrates for metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) in the ultraviolet (UV) for the label-free detection of biomolecules. The radiated power enhancement of the fluorophores in proximity to aluminum nanoparticles is strongly dependent on the nanoparticle size,(More)
Linear DNAs of any sequence can be packaged into empty viral procapsids by the phage T4 terminase with high efficiency in vitro. Packaging substrates of 5 kbp and 50 kbp, terminated by energy transfer dye pairs, were constructed from plasmid and lambda phage DNAs. Nuclease and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) assays showed that approximately 20%(More)
Stem cell progeny often undergo transit amplifying divisions before differentiation. In Drosophila, a spermatogonial precursor divides four times within an enclosure formed by two somatic-origin cyst cells, before differentiating into spermatocytes. Although germline and cyst cell-intrinsic factors are known to regulate these divisions, the mechanistic(More)
Many large double-stranded DNA viruses employ high force-generating ATP-driven molecular motors to package to high density their genomes into empty procapsids. Bacteriophage T4 DNA translocation is driven by a two-component motor consisting of the procapsid portal docked with a packaging terminase-ATPase. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer and(More)
Toward the end of spermiogenesis, spermatid nuclei are compacted and the clonally related spermatids individualize to become mature and active sperm. Studies in Drosophila showed that caudal end-directed movement of a microfilament-rich structure, called investment cone, expels the cytoplasmic contents of individual spermatids. F-actin dynamics plays an(More)
Spermatids derived from a single gonial cell remain interconnected within a cyst and elongate by synchronized growth inside the testis in Drosophila. Cylindrical spectrin-rich elongation cones form at their distal ends during the growth. The mechanism underlying this process is poorly understood. We found that developing sperm tails were abnormally coiled(More)