Kris Holmes

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The replication of many viruses involves the formation of higher-order structures or replication "factories." We show that the key replication enzyme of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, forms fibrils in vitro. Although there are similarities with previously characterized poliovirus polymerase fibrils, FMDV fibrils are(More)
The core protein of the hepatitis B virus, HBcAg, assembles into highly immunogenic virus-like particles (HBc VLPs) when expressed in a variety of heterologous systems. Specifically, the major insertion region (MIR) on the HBcAg protein allows the insertion of foreign sequences, which are then exposed on the tips of surface spike structures on the outside(More)
The structural and functional analysis of the core protein of hepatitis B virus is important for a full understanding of the viral life cycle and the development of novel therapeutic agents. The majority of the core protein (CP149) comprises the capsid assembly domain, and the C-terminal region (residues 150-183) is responsible for nucleic acid binding.(More)
Macromolecular complexes are responsible for many key biological processes. However, in most cases details of the assembly/disassembly of such complexes are unknown at the molecular level, as the low abundance and transient nature of assembly intermediates make analysis challenging. The assembly of virus capsids is an example of such a process. The(More)
The international scope of computing, digital information interchange, and electronic publishing has created a need for world-wide character encoding standards. Unicode is a comprehensive standard designed to meet such a need. To be readable by humans, character codes require fonts that provide visual images glyphs corresponding to the codes. The design of(More)
The standard bitmap fonts on the Apple Macintosh series of computers have become so much a part of the System interface that it is hard to conceive of a Macintosh without them. Following the adoption of TrueType technology for Macintosh System 7 the idea was put forward of developing TrueType outline versions of the four fonts involved: Chicago, Geneva,(More)
Background: We studied assembly of HBV capsids using a genetically-fused dimer. Results: Assembly intermediates composed of two, three and five copies of a fused dimer have been isolated. Conclusion: Capsid assembly could progress using dimeric, trimeric and pentameric intermediates. Significance: The low abundance and transient nature of assembly(More)
Interview of Charles Bigelow by Yue Wang, conducted in 2012. Y: In this interview we are very lucky to have Charles Bigelow with us. Professor Bigelow is a type historian, educator, and designer. With his design partner, Kris Holmes, he created the Lucida family of fonts used in the human-computer interfaces of Apple Macintosh OS X, Microsoft Windows, Bell(More)
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