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Anti-dengue virus immunoglobulin M kits were evaluated. Test sensitivities were 21%-99% and specificities were 77%-98% compared with reference ELISAs. False-positive results were found for patients with malaria or past dengue infections. Three ELISAs showing strong agreement with reference ELISAs will be included in the World Health Organization Bulk(More)
Dengue virus (DENV) nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) has shown promise as a novel diagnostic marker of acute DENV infection. Current techniques used to diagnose acute DENV infection, including virus isolation and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), are costly and difficult to perform, while traditional serological assays have low sensitivities during the acute(More)
BACKGROUND Dengue viruses (DENV) are endemic in over 100 countries worldwide, and annually 50 to 100 million people are infected by one of the four DENV serotypes, whereas over 2.5 billion people are at risk for infection. West African countries lack the surveillance to determine the true incidence of dengue; hence, this disease is likely significantly(More)
A sentinel chicken program for West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance was initiated in July 2006 in eastern Puerto Rico, yielding the first seroconversions on June 4, 2007. WNV was isolated from sentinel chicken serum and mosquito pools (Culex nigripalpus, Culex bahamensis) for the first time in Tropical America. Preliminary sequence analysis of the prM and E(More)
West Nile virus (WNV) ecology in neotropical ecosystems is poorly understood, and vertebrate hosts responsible for infecting mosquitoes remain unidentified throughout the Caribbean Basin. After a period of intense WNV transmission among sentinel chickens near Ceiba, Puerto Rico, we measured abundance of resident birds and species-specific prevalence of WNV(More)
West Nile virus (WNV) was isolated from a human blood donor, a dead falcon, and mosquitoes in Puerto Rico in 2007. Phylogenetic analysis of the 4 isolates suggests a recent introduction of lineage I WNV that is closely related to WNV currently circulating in North America.
Annually, over 2.5 billion people are at risk for infection with dengue virus (DENV), while between 50 and 100 million people contract the infection. There is an urgent need for alternative diagnostic tools that can detect DENV during acute infection. Recent studies have shown that DENV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is detectable in the blood as early as(More)
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