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The impact of an inhomogeneous arrangement of nodes in space on a network organization cannot be neglected in most real-world scale-free networks. Here we propose a model for a geographical network with nodes embedded in a fractal space in which we can tune the network heterogeneity by varying the strength of the spatial embedding. When the nodes in such… (More)

The fractal and the small-world properties of complex networks are systematically studied both in the box-covering (BC) and the cluster-growing (CG) measurements. We elucidate that complex networks possessing the fractal (small-world) nature in the BC measurement are always fractal (small world) even in the CG measurement and vice versa, while the fractal… (More)

Fractal scale-free networks are empirically known to exhibit disassortative degree mixing. It is, however, not obvious whether a negative degree correlation between nearest neighbor nodes makes a scale-free network fractal. Here we examine the possibility that disassortativity in complex networks is the origin of fractality. To this end, maximally… (More)

We propose a dynamical model in which a network structure evolves in a self-organized critical (SOC) manner and explain a possible origin of the emergence of fractal and small-world networks. Our model combines a network growth and its decay by failures of nodes. The decay mechanism reflects the instability of large functional networks against cascading… (More)

Taking into account the fact that overload failures in real-world functional networks are usually caused by extreme values of temporally fluctuating loads that exceed the allowable range, we study the robustness of scale-free networks against cascading overload failures induced by fluctuating loads. In our model, loads are described by random walkers moving… (More)

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