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Exosomes are 30-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin, mediating diverse biological functions including tumor cell invasion, cell-cell communication and antigen presentation through transfer of proteins, mRNAs and microRNAs. Recent evidence suggests that microRNAs can be released through ceramide-dependent secretory machinery regulated by neutral(More)
PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) has been shown to be inactivated in a wide variety of cancers, and the role of this gene as a tumor suppressor has been well established. On the other hand, results of recent animal studies as well as clinical evidence indicate that PTEN is also involved in tumor metastasis suppression.(More)
OBJECTIVE The goal of this work was to investigate the efficacy of a calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) slow-release tablet (CGRP tablet) for the prevention of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). METHODS Experimental SAH was produced in 10 cynomolgus monkeys by placing a clot around the internal carotid artery bifurcation (Day 0).(More)
Metastatic disease is the major cause of cancer deaths, and recurrent tumors at distant organs are a critical issue. However, how metastatic tumor cells become dormant and how and why tumors recur in target organs are not well understood. In this study, we demonstrate that BMP7 (bone morphogenetic protein 7) secreted from bone stromal cells induces(More)
Drg-1 was previously identified (N. van Belzen et al., Lab. Investig., 77: 85-92, 1997) as a gene that was up-regulated by the induction of differentiation in a colon carcinoma cell line in vitro. Subsequently, this gene was found to be regulated by several factors including hypoxia, androgen, p53, and N-myc. Recently, Drg-1 has also been shown to be(More)
RhoC is a member of the Ras-homologous family of genes which have been implicated in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. However, the exact role of RhoC is controversial and is yet to be clarified. We have examined the effect of RhoC on prostate tumor cells and found that RhoC had no effect on cell proliferation in vitro or on tumor growth in mice.(More)
Notch signaling is often and aberrantly activated by hypoxia during tumor progression; however, the exact pathological role of hypoxia-induced Notch signaling in tumor metastasis is as yet poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to define the mechanism of Notch-ligand activation by hypoxia in both primary tumor and bone stromal cells in the metastatic(More)
The fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene is significantly up-regulated in various types of cancers, and blocking the FAS expression results in apoptosis of tumor cells. Therefore, FAS is considered to be an attractive target for anticancer therapy. However, the molecular mechanism by which the FAS gene is up-regulated in tumor cells is poorly understood. We found(More)
Despite significant improvement in survival rates of patients with breast cancer, prognosis of metastatic disease is still dismal. Cancer stem-like cells (CSC) are considered to play a role in metastatic progression of breast cancer; however, the exact pathologic role of CSCs is yet to be elucidated. In this report, we found that CSCs(More)
It is well known that upon stress, the level of the tumor suppressor p53 is remarkably elevated. However, despite extensive studies, the underlying mechanism involving important inter-players for stress-induced p53 regulation is still not fully understood. We present evidence that the human lincRNA-RoR (RoR) is a strong negative regulator of p53. Unlike(More)