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Exosomes are 30-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin, mediating diverse biological functions including tumor cell invasion, cell-cell communication and antigen presentation through transfer of proteins, mRNAs and microRNAs. Recent evidence suggests that microRNAs can be released through ceramide-dependent secretory machinery regulated by neutral(More)
OBJECTIVE The goal of this work was to investigate the efficacy of a calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) slow-release tablet (CGRP tablet) for the prevention of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). METHODS Experimental SAH was produced in 10 cynomolgus monkeys by placing a clot around the internal carotid artery bifurcation (Day 0).(More)
It is well known that upon stress, the level of the tumor suppressor p53 is remarkably elevated. However, despite extensive studies, the underlying mechanism involving important inter-players for stress-induced p53 regulation is still not fully understood. We present evidence that the human lincRNA-RoR (RoR) is a strong negative regulator of p53. Unlike(More)
Metastatic disease is the major cause of cancer deaths, and recurrent tumors at distant organs are a critical issue. However, how metastatic tumor cells become dormant and how and why tumors recur in target organs are not well understood. In this study, we demonstrate that BMP7 (bone morphogenetic protein 7) secreted from bone stromal cells induces(More)
Notch signaling is often and aberrantly activated by hypoxia during tumor progression; however, the exact pathological role of hypoxia-induced Notch signaling in tumor metastasis is as yet poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to define the mechanism of Notch-ligand activation by hypoxia in both primary tumor and bone stromal cells in the metastatic(More)
Drg-1 was previously identified (N. van Belzen et al., Lab. Investig., 77: 85–92, 1997) as a gene that was up-regulated by the induction of differentiation in a colon carcinoma cell line in vitro. Subsequently, this gene was found to be regulated by several factors including hypoxia, androgen, p53, and N-myc. Recently, Drg-1 has also been shown to be(More)
Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway involved in cell fate control during development, stem cell self-renewal, and postnatal tissue differentiation. Roles for Notch in carcinogenesis, the biology of cancer stem cells, tumor angiogenesis, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) have been reported. This review describes the role of(More)
The median survival time of breast cancer patients with brain metastasis is less than 6 months, and even a small metastatic lesion often causes severe neurological disabilities. Because of the location of metastatic lesions, a surgical approach is limited and most chemotherapeutic drugs are ineffective owing to the blood brain barrier (BBB). Despite this(More)
Wnt signalling has pivotal roles in tumour progression and metastasis; however, the exact molecular mechanism of Wnt signalling in the metastatic process is as yet poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that the tumour metastasis suppressor gene, NDRG1, interacts with the Wnt receptor, LRP6, followed by blocking of the Wnt signalling, and therefore,(More)
The tumor metastasis suppressor gene Drg-1 has been shown to suppress metastasis without affecting tumorigenicity in immunodeficient mouse models of prostate and colon cancer. Expression of Drg-1 has also been found to have a significant inverse correlation with metastasis or invasiveness in various types of human cancer. However, how Drg-1 exerts its(More)