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Bringing together leaf trait data spanning 2,548 species and 175 sites we describe, for the first time at global scale, a universal spectrum of leaf economics consisting of key chemical, structural and physiological properties. The spectrum runs from quick to slow return on investments of nutrients and dry mass in leaves, and operates largely independently(More)
Aim Our aim was to quantify climatic influences on key leaf traits and relationships at the global scale. This knowledge provides insight into how plants have adapted to different environmental pressures, and will lead to better calibration of future vegetation–climate models. Location The data set represents vegetation from 175 sites around the world.(More)
Global-scale quantification of relationships between plant traits gives insight into the evolution of the world's vegetation, and is crucial for parameterizing vegetation-climate models. A database was compiled, comprising data for hundreds to thousands of species for the core 'leaf economics' traits leaf lifespan, leaf mass per area, photosynthetic(More)
Most plants show considerable capacity to adjust their photosynthetic characteristics to their growth temperatures (temperature acclimation). The most typical case is a shift in the optimum temperature for photosynthesis, which can maximize the photosynthetic rate at the growth temperature. These plastic adjustments can allow plants to photosynthesize more(More)
The balance between the capacities of RuBP (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate) carboxylation (V(cmax)) and RuBP regeneration (expressed as the maximum electron transport rate, J(max)) determines the CO(2) dependence of the photosynthetic rate. As it has been suggested that this balance changes depending on the growth temperature, the hypothesis that the seasonal(More)
Understanding of the scaling of diversity is critical to enhance conservation strategies for subalpine moorland ecosystems vulnerable to future environmental changes. However, a paucity of quantitative data strongly limits such attempts. In this study, we used an additive diversity partitioning framework and quantified diversity patterns of moorland plant(More)
Despite the ecological, conservation, and cultural significance of Japan’s alpine and subalpine moorland ecosystems, the patterns of species composition in plant communities in these ecosystems have not been fully described. The objectives of this study were to classify and describe the species composition of moorland plant communities and to examine the(More)
Adaptive divergence at the microgeographic scale has been generally disregarded because high gene flow is expected to disrupt local adaptation. Yet, growing number of studies reporting adaptive divergence at a small spatial scale highlight the importance of this process in evolutionary biology. To investigate the genetic basis of microgeographic local(More)
The vertical gradient of the leaf nitrogen content in a plant canopy is one of the determinants of vegetation productivity. The ecological significance of the nitrogen distribution in plant canopies has been discussed in relation to its optimality; nitrogen distribution in actual plant canopies is close to but always less steep than the optimal distribution(More)
High doses of ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280–315 nm) radiation can have detrimental effects on plants, and especially damage their DNA. Plants have DNA repair and protection mechanisms to prevent UV-B damage. However, it remains unclear how DNA damage and tolerance mechanisms vary among field species. We studied DNA damage and tolerance mechanisms in 26 species(More)