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Bringing together leaf trait data spanning 2,548 species and 175 sites we describe, for the first time at global scale, a universal spectrum of leaf economics consisting of key chemical, structural and physiological properties. The spectrum runs from quick to slow return on investments of nutrients and dry mass in leaves, and operates largely independently(More)
Global-scale quantification of relationships between plant traits gives insight into the evolution of the world's vegetation, and is crucial for parameterizing vegetation-climate models. A database was compiled, comprising data for hundreds to thousands of species for the core 'leaf economics' traits leaf lifespan, leaf mass per area, photosynthetic(More)
Aim Our aim was to quantify climatic influences on key leaf traits and relationships at the global scale. This knowledge provides insight into how plants have adapted to different environmental pressures, and will lead to better calibration of future vegetation–climate models. Location The data set represents vegetation from 175 sites around the world.(More)
Growth temperature alters temperature dependence of the photosynthetic rate (temperature acclimation). In many species, the optimal temperature that maximizes the photosynthetic rate increases with increasing growth temperature. In this minireview, mechanisms involved in changes in the photosynthesis-temperature curve are discussed. Based on the biochemical(More)
The photosynthesis–nitrogen relationship is significantly different among species. Photosynthetic capacity per unit leaf nitrogen, termed as photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE), has been considered an important leaf trait to characterise species in relation to their leaf economics, physiology, and strategy. In this review, I discuss (1) relations(More)
We studied the effects of photon flux density (PFD) and leaf position, a measure of developmental age, on the distribution of nitrogen content per unit leaf area (N area) in plants of different heights, in dense stands grown at two nitrogen availabilities and in solitary plants of the erect dicotyledonous herb Xanthium canadense. Taller more dominant plants(More)
Photoinactivation of PSII is thought to be caused by the excessive light energy that is neither used for photosynthetic electron transport nor dissipated as heat. However, the relationship between the photoinactivation rate and excess energy has not been quantitatively evaluated. Chenopodium album L. plants grown under high-light and high-nitrogen (HL-HN)(More)
Most plants show considerable capacity to adjust their photosynthetic characteristics to their growth temperatures (temperature acclimation). The most typical case is a shift in the optimum temperature for photosynthesis, which can maximize the photosynthetic rate at the growth temperature. These plastic adjustments can allow plants to photosynthesize more(More)
While interspecific variation in the temperature response of photosynthesis is well documented, the underlying physiological mechanisms remain unknown. Moreover, mechanisms related to species-dependent differences in photosynthetic temperature acclimation are unclear. We compared photosynthetic temperature acclimation in 11 crop species differing in their(More)
The importance of light acquisition and utilization by individuals in intraspecific competition was evaluated by determining growth and photosynthesis of individual plants in a dense monospecific stand of an annual, Xanthium canadense. Photosynthesis of individual plants in the stand was calculated using a canopy photosynthesis model in which leaf(More)