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Bringing together leaf trait data spanning 2,548 species and 175 sites we describe, for the first time at global scale, a universal spectrum of leaf economics consisting of key chemical, structural and physiological properties. The spectrum runs from quick to slow return on investments of nutrients and dry mass in leaves, and operates largely independently(More)
Aim Our aim was to quantify climatic influences on key leaf traits and relationships at the global scale. This knowledge provides insight into how plants have adapted to different environmental pressures, and will lead to better calibration of future vegetation–climate models. Location The data set represents vegetation from 175 sites around the world.(More)
Global-scale quantification of relationships between plant traits gives insight into the evolution of the world's vegetation, and is crucial for parameterizing vegetation-climate models. A database was compiled, comprising data for hundreds to thousands of species for the core 'leaf economics' traits leaf lifespan, leaf mass per area, photosynthetic(More)
Most plants show considerable capacity to adjust their photosynthetic characteristics to their growth temperatures (temperature acclimation). The most typical case is a shift in the optimum temperature for photosynthesis, which can maximize the photosynthetic rate at the growth temperature. These plastic adjustments can allow plants to photosynthesize more(More)
Effects of growth temperature and irradiance on nitrogen partitioning among photosynthetic components were studied. Plantago asiatica was grown under different temperature and light conditions. Growth conditions were regulated such that the Chl a/b ratio in leaves grown at a low temperature with a low irradiance was similar to that in leaves grown at a high(More)
The response of seed production to CO(2) concentration ([CO(2)]) is known to vary considerably among C(3) annual species. Here we analyse the interspecific variation in CO(2) responses of seed production per plant with particular attention to nitrogen use. Provided that seed production is limited by nitrogen availability, an increase in seed mass per plant(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS In a leaf canopy, there is a turnover of leaves; i.e. they are produced, senesce and fall. These processes determine the amount of leaf area in the canopy, which in turn determines canopy photosynthesis. The turnover rate of leaves is affected by environmental factors and is different among species. This mini-review discusses factors(More)
The balance between the capacities of RuBP (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate) carboxylation (V(cmax)) and RuBP regeneration (expressed as the maximum electron transport rate, J(max)) determines the CO(2) dependence of the photosynthetic rate. As it has been suggested that this balance changes depending on the growth temperature, the hypothesis that the seasonal(More)
Understanding of the scaling of diversity is critical to enhance conservation strategies for subalpine moorland ecosystems vulnerable to future environmental changes. However, a paucity of quantitative data strongly limits such attempts. In this study, we used an additive diversity partitioning framework and quantified diversity patterns of moorland plant(More)
Adaptive divergence at the microgeographic scale has been generally disregarded because high gene flow is expected to disrupt local adaptation. Yet, growing number of studies reporting adaptive divergence at a small spatial scale highlight the importance of this process in evolutionary biology. To investigate the genetic basis of microgeographic local(More)