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Protein-protein interactions play pivotal roles in various aspects of the structural and functional organization of the cell, and their complete description is indispensable to thorough understanding of the cell. As an approach toward this goal, here we report a comprehensive system to examine two-hybrid interactions in all of the possible combinations(More)
We reported a novel type of calcium release from inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3))-sensitive calcium stores synergistically induced by muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAchR)-mediated increase in IP(3) and action potential-induced calcium influx (IP(3)-assisted calcium-induced calcium release, IP(3)-assisted CICR). To clarify its functional(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been conserved remarkably during evolution and is widely expressed in the mammalian brain. In Drosophila, mutation of the PACAP homologue results in behavioral defects, including impaired olfaction-associated learning and changes in ethanol sensitivity. Here, we report the generation of mice(More)
Alteration of creatine kinase BB-isoenzyme (CK-BB) was investigated in the vulnerable CA1 region of the hippocampus of ischemic and postischemic gerbil brains using immunoelectron microscopy. CK-BB existed in the neuronal perikarya, dendrites and axons as well as in astroglias in the normal gerbil brain. Immunocytochemical reaction products were associated(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize a distinct form of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia (ADCA) clinically and genetically. BACKGROUND ADCAs are a clinically, pathologically, and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders. Nine responsible genes have been identified for SCA-1, -2, -3, -6, -7, -8, -10, and -12 and dentatorubral-pallidoluysian(More)
Mammalian bombesin-like peptides are widely distributed in the central nervous system as well as in the gastrointestinal tract, where they modulate smooth-muscle contraction, exocrine and endocrine processes, metabolism and behaviour. They bind to G-protein-coupled receptors on the cell surface to elicit their effects. Bombesin-like peptide receptors cloned(More)
This study consists of two training experiments using a mechanically braked cycle ergometer. First, the effect of 6 wk of moderate-intensity endurance training (intensity: 70% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), 60 min.d-1, 5 d.wk-1) on the anaerobic capacity (the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit) and VO2max was evaluated. After the training, the anaerobic(More)
Carbachol, a long-acting cholinergic agonist, was microinjected (4 micrograms/250 nl per 90 s) into 90 sites within the anterodorsal pontine tegmentum of four cats and the time to onset and percentage of time spent in a desynchronized sleep-like state during 40 min postinjection were calculated. Compared with more posteroventral pontine sites, the shorter(More)
The steady-state mRNA levels of the four neurotrophic factors of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and their receptors (p75NGFR, trkA, trkB and trkC) in the adult human peripheral nervous system (PNS) as well as nonneural tissues were examined(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the safety and efficacy of 5-year, long-term tocilizumab monotherapy for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS In an open-label, long-term extension trial following an initial 3-month randomised phase II trial, 143 of the 163 patients who participated in the initial blinded study received tocilizumab monotherapy (8 mg/kg)(More)