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Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium aminovalericum, both obligatory anaerobes, grow normally after growth conditions are changed from anoxic to microoxic, where the cells consume oxygen proficiently. In C. aminovalericum, a gene encoding a previously characterized H2O-forming NADH oxidase, designated noxA, was cloned and sequenced. The expression of(More)
Synaptic vesicle loading of glutamate is a pivotal step in glutamate synaptic transmission. The molecular machinery responsible for this step is comprised of v-type proton-pump ATPase and a vesicular glutamate transporter. Recent evidence indicates that synaptic vesicles are endowed with glycolytic ATP-synthesizing enzymes, providing energy for immediate(More)
We investigated the effects of O2 on Bifidobacterium species using liquid shaking cultures under various O2 concentrations. Although most of the Bifidobacterium species we selected showed O2 sensitivity, two species, B. boum and B. thermophilum, demonstrated microaerophilic profiles. The growth of B. bifidum and B. longum was inhibited under high-O2(More)
Glutamate accumulation into synaptic vesicles is a pivotal step in glutamate transmission. This process is achieved by a vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) coupled to v-type proton ATPase. Normal synaptic transmission, in particular during intensive neuronal firing, would demand rapid transmitter re-filling of emptied synaptic vesicles. We have(More)
Glycolytic ATP synthesis by synaptic vesicles provides an efficient mechanism for fueling vesicular loading of the neurotransmitter glutamate. This is achieved in part by vesicle-bound pyruvate kinase. However, we have found that vesicular glutamate uptake, in the presence of the pyruvate kinase substrates ADP and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), substantially(More)
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