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To ensure their stable inheritance by daughter cells during cell division, bacterial low-copy-number plasmids make simple DNA segregating machines that use an elongating protein filament between sister plasmids. In the ParMRC system of the Escherichia coli R1 plasmid, ParM, an actinlike protein, forms the spindle between ParRC complexes on sister plasmids.(More)
X-ray fiber diffraction analysis of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) has led to the building of a molecular model of the intact virus, based on a map at 3.6 A resolution derived from five separated Bessel orders. This has been made possible by advances in the solution of the fiber diffraction phase problem. It is now possible to understand much of the chemical(More)
The growth of the bacterial flagellar filament occurs at its distal end by self-assembly of flagellin transported from the cytoplasm through the narrow central channel. The cap at the growing end is essential for its growth, remaining stably attached while permitting the flagellin insertion. In order to understand the assembly mechanism, we used electron(More)
The L-P ring complex is thought to be a molecular bushing that supports flagellar motor rotation at about 10,000 revolutions per minute with presumably very little friction. Structural studies of this complex have been limited because only very small amount of samples are available. Therefore devising an efficient method of crystallization was essential.(More)
X-ray fibre diffraction analysis of bacterial flagellar filaments has allowed the subunit packing and secondary structure arrangement in the filament core to be determined. The central hole, presumably a channel for flagellin transport, is large enough to accommodate the folded elongated flagellin molecules during their transport to the distal end for(More)
Functionality of artifacts as well as structure and behavior plays crucial roles in problem-solving such as design. This article discusses automatic identifications of functional structures of artifacts from given behavioral models of components and their connection information (called functional understanding). We propose a functional concept ontology(More)
The bacterial flagellar filament is a helical propeller constructed from 11 protofilaments of a single protein, flagellin. The filament switches between left- and right-handed supercoiled forms when bacteria switch their swimming mode between running and tumbling. Supercoiling is produced by two different packing interactions of flagellin called L and R. In(More)
The supercoiled forms of the flagellar filaments are thought to be constructed from a mixture of two distinct subunit conformations arranged in a regular manner. We analyzed the structure of one of the two straight flagellar filaments, each of which is built up with all its subunits in one of the two conformations. The filament we studied was isolated from(More)
[125I]Bolton-Hunter substance P [( 125I]BH-SP) binding sites in rat and human skin were investigated, using quantitative receptor autoradiographic and emulsion autoradiographic methods. [125I]BH-SP binding sites were discretely localized in skin areas anatomically corresponding to dermal papillae, sweat glands, and hair follicles. The highest density of the(More)
Methods for simplifying computer graphics images of atomic models of complex macromolecular assemblies have been applied to the tobacco mosaic virus structure to display different levels of its organization. By constructing sharply outlined pictures of the parts of the virus particle with the image resolution reduced or with obscuring detail eliminated,(More)