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Glucose-responsive (GR) neurons in the hypothalamus are thought to be critical in glucose homeostasis, but it is not known how they function in this context. Kir6.2 is the pore-forming subunit of K(ATP) channels in many cell types, including pancreatic beta-cells and heart. Here we show the complete absence of both functional ATP-sensitive K+ (K(ATP))(More)
Cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome is characterized by decreased food intake, weight loss, muscle tissue wasting and psychological distress, and this syndrome is a major source of increased morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. This study aimed to clarify the gut-brain peptides involved in the pathogenesis of the syndrome and determine effective(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term treatment with interferon (IFN)-alpha on the noradrenaline transporter of bovine adrenal medullary cells. Treatment of cultured adrenal medullary cells with IFN-alpha caused a decrease in uptake of [3H]noradrenaline by the cells in time (4-48 h)- and concentration (300-1,000 U/ml)-dependent(More)
Tramadol is a widely used, centrally acting analgesic, but its mechanisms of action are not completely understood. Muscarinic receptors are known to be involved in neuronal function in the brain and autonomic nervous system, and much attention has been paid to these receptors as targets of analgesic drugs in the central nervous system. This study(More)
This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2000 ISBRA Meeting in Yokohama, Japan. The chairs were Toshio Narahashi and Kinya Kuriyama. The presentations were (1) Modulation of neuroreceptors and ion channels by alcohol, by T. Narahashi; (2) Inhibition by ethanol of NMDA and AMPA receptor-channels, by P. Illes, K. Wirkner, W. Fischer, K.(More)
Allyl isothiocyanates (AITC) and cinnamaldehyde are pungent compounds present in mustard oil and cinnamon oil, respectively. These compounds are well known as transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) agonists. TRPA1 is activated by low temperature stimuli, mechanosensation and pungent irritants such as AITC and cinnamaldehyde. TRPA1 is often(More)
Neurosteroids are known as allosteric modulators of ionotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. Here, we investigated sites of positive allosteric modulation by allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (5alpha-THDOC) at GABA receptors using the technique of chimeragenesis and the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Our findings have demonstrated that the(More)
Effects of the intravenous anaesthetic ketamine on the desipramine-sensitive noradrenaline transporter (NAT) were examined in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells and in transfected Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the bovine NAT (bNAT). Incubation (1-3 h) of adrenal medullary cells with ketamine (10-300 microM) caused an increase in appearance of(More)
We assessed the effects of tramadol, a centrally acting analgesic, and its major metabolite, on neurotransmitter-gated ion channels. Tramadol binds to mu-opioid receptors with low affinity and inhibits reuptake of monoamines in the central nervous system. These actions are believed to primarily contribute to its antinociceptive effects. However, little is(More)
Tramadol is an analgesic that is used worldwide, but its mechanisms of action have not been elucidated. It has been speculated that tramadol acts primarily through the activation of micro-opioid receptors and the inhibition of monoamine reuptake. The majority of studies to date have focused on ion channels in the central nervous system as targets of(More)