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Anesthetics (and ethanol) are known to produce amnesia as well as immobilization. Recent identification of a nonimmobilizing (nonanesthetic) agent (F6 or 1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane) that impairs learning and memory suggests that distinct mechanisms may be responsible for these two actions of anesthetic agents. Muscarinic receptors are believed to(More)
This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2000 ISBRA Meeting in Yokohama, Japan. The chairs were Toshio Narahashi and Kinya Kuriyama. The presentations were (1) Modulation of neuroreceptors and ion channels by alcohol, by T. Narahashi; (2) Inhibition by ethanol of NMDA and AMPA receptor-channels, by P. Illes, K. Wirkner, W. Fischer, K.(More)
Allyl isothiocyanates (AITC) and cinnamaldehyde are pungent compounds present in mustard oil and cinnamon oil, respectively. These compounds are well known as transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) agonists. TRPA1 is activated by low temperature stimuli, mechanosensation and pungent irritants such as AITC and cinnamaldehyde. TRPA1 is often(More)
Neurosteroids are known as allosteric modulators of ionotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. Here, we investigated sites of positive allosteric modulation by allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (5alpha-THDOC) at GABA receptors using the technique of chimeragenesis and the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Our findings have demonstrated that the(More)
Effects of the intravenous anaesthetic ketamine on the desipramine-sensitive noradrenaline transporter (NAT) were examined in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells and in transfected Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the bovine NAT (bNAT). Incubation (1-3 h) of adrenal medullary cells with ketamine (10-300 microM) caused an increase in appearance of(More)
Tramadol is an analgesic that is used worldwide, but its mechanisms of action have not been elucidated. It has been speculated that tramadol acts primarily through the activation of micro-opioid receptors and the inhibition of monoamine reuptake. The majority of studies to date have focused on ion channels in the central nervous system as targets of(More)
We assessed the effects of tramadol, a centrally acting analgesic, and its major metabolite, on neurotransmitter-gated ion channels. Tramadol binds to mu-opioid receptors with low affinity and inhibits reuptake of monoamines in the central nervous system. These actions are believed to primarily contribute to its antinociceptive effects. However, little is(More)
PURPOSE Tramadol is widely used clinically as an analgesic, yet the mechanism by which it produces antinociception remains unclear. O-Desmethyl tramadol, the main metabolite of tramadol, is a more potent analgesic than tramadol. We reported previously that tramadol inhibits the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) type 2C receptor (5-HT(2C)R), a G-protein-coupled(More)
1. Tramadol has been used clinically as an analgesic; however, the mechanism of its analgesic effects is still unknown. 2. We used bovine adrenal chromaffin cells to investigate effects of tramadol on catecholamine secretion, nicotine-induced cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) increases and membrane current changes. We also investigated effects of(More)
Neurons in the hypothalamus containing the neuropeptide orexin have been implicated in the control of sleep and wakefulness and in the pathology of narcolepsy. In this study, we investigated the effects of volatile anesthetics, ethanol and intravenous anesthetics on orexin-A-induced Ca2+-activated Cl- currents using Xenopus oocytes expressing orexin-1(More)