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Human ES (hES) cell lines are considered to be a valuable resource for medical research and for applications in cell therapy and drug discovery. For such utilization of hES cells to be realized, however, protocols involved in the use of hES cells, such as those for establishment, propagation, and cryopreservation, have still to be improved. Here, we report(More)
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are thought to be a promising cell source for cell transplantation therapy. For such a clinical application, the hESCs should be manipulated using appropriate and qualified materials. In this study, we examined the efficacy of recombinant human laminin (rhLM) isoforms on the undifferentiated growth of hESCs. We first(More)
The applicability of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) will be greatly enhanced by techniques that permit efficient genetic modification with multiple transgenes. We report here on single-promoter-driven foot-and-mouth disease virus segment 2A-mediated multicistronic expression of a transgene in hESCs. Efficient multicistronic expression of the transgene(More)
Somatic cells can be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells by ectopic expression of specific sets of transcription factors. Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4, factors that share many target genes in embryonic stem (ES) cells, are critical components in various reprogramming protocols. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether these factors function(More)
BACKGROUND Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells can differentiate into female and male germ cells in vitro. Primate ES cells can also differentiate into immature germ cells in vitro. However, little is known about the differentiation markers and culture conditions for in vitro germ cell differentiation from ES cells in primates. Monkey ES cells are thus(More)
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) exhibit pluripotency and indefinite proliferation and are a potential source of cells for transplantation therapies and drug discovery. These applications will require large amounts of hESCs. However, hESCs are difficult to culture and maintain at larger scales, in part because of their low resistance to dissociation(More)
The caudal neural plate is a distinct region of the embryo that gives rise to major progenitor lineages of the developing central and peripheral nervous system, including neural crest and floor plate cells. We show that dual inhibition of the glycogen synthase kinase 3β and activin/nodal pathways by small molecules differentiate human pluripotent stem cells(More)
Human embryonic stem (hES) cells are regarded as a potentially unlimited source of cellular materials for regenerative medicine. For biological studies and clinical applications using primate ES cells, the development of a general strategy to obtain efficient gene delivery and genetic manipulation, especially gene targeting via homologous recombination(More)
Random integration is one of the more straightforward methods to introduce a transgene into human embryonic stem (ES) cells. However, random integration may result in transgene silencing and altered cell phenotype due to insertional mutagenesis in undefined gene regions. Moreover, reliability of data may be compromised by differences in transgene(More)
An optimal culture system for human pluripotent stem cells should be fully defined and free of animal components. To date, most xeno-free culture systems require human feeder cells and/or highly complicated culture media that contain activators of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) signaling pathways, and none provide(More)