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The axonal arbors of single nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons were visualized with a viral vector expressing membrane-targeted green fluorescent protein in rat brain. All eight reconstructed tyrosine hydroxylase-positive dopaminergic neurons possessed widely spread and highly dense axonal arborizations in the neostriatum. All of them emitted very little(More)
Vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGluT1) and VGluT2 accumulate neurotransmitter glutamate into synaptic vesicles at presynaptic terminals, and their antibodies are thus considered to be a good marker for glutamatergic axon terminals. In the present study, we investigated the postnatal development and maturation of glutamatergic neuronal systems by single-(More)
The rat neostriatum has a mosaic organization composed of striosome/patch compartments embedded in a more extensive matrix compartment, which are distinguished from each other by the input-output organization as well as by the expression of many molecular markers. The matrix compartment gives rise to the dual γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic striatofugal(More)
Vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) and VGLUT2 show complementary distribution in neocortex; VGLUT1 is expressed mainly in axon terminals of neocortical neurons, whereas VGLUT2 is located chiefly in thalamocortical axon terminals. However, we recently reported a frequent colocalization of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 at a subset of axon terminals in postnatal(More)
One of the most salient features of primary vibrissal afferents is their sensitivity to the direction in which the vibrissae move. Directional sensitivity is also well conserved in brainstem, thalamic, and cortical neurons of the lemniscal pathway, indicating that this property plays a key role in the organization of the vibrissal system. Here, we show that(More)
Motor thalamic nuclei, ventral anterior (VA), ventral lateral (VL) and ventral medial (VM) nuclei, receive massive glutamatergic and GABAergic afferents from the cerebellum and basal ganglia, respectively. In the present study, these afferents were characterized with immunoreactivities for glutamic acid decarboxylase of 67 kDa (GAD67) and vesicular(More)
Neurons of the motor thalamus mediate basal ganglia and cerebellar influences on cortical activity. To elucidate the net result of γ-aminobutyric acid-releasing or glutamatergic bombardment of the motor thalamus by basal ganglia or cerebellar afferents, respectively, we recorded the spontaneous activities of thalamocortical neurons in distinct identified(More)
The generation of pyramidal neurons in the mammalian neocortex has been attributed to proliferating progenitor cells within the ventricular zone (VZ). Recently, the subventricular zone (SVZ) has been recognized as a possible source of migratory neurons in brain slice preparations, but the relevance of these observations for the developing neocortex in vivo(More)
Adult mammalian neurogenesis occurs in the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb, whereas neocortical adult neurogenesis remains controversial. Several occurrences of neocortical adult neurogenesis in injured neocortex were recently reported, suggesting that neural stem cells (NSCs) or neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) that can be activated by injury are(More)
The axonal arborization of single motor thalamic neurons was examined in rat brain using a viral vector expressing membrane-targeted palmitoylation site-attached green fluorescent protein (palGFP). We first divided the ventral anterior-ventral lateral motor thalamic nuclei into 1) the rostromedial portion, which was designated inhibitory afferent-dominant(More)