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Autotaxin (ATX) is a tumor cell motility-stimulating factor, originally isolated from melanoma cell supernatants. ATX had been proposed to mediate its effects through 5'-nucleotide pyrophosphatase and phosphodiesterase activities. However, the ATX substrate mediating the increase in cellular motility remains to be identified. Here, we demonstrated that(More)
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid mediator with multiple biological activities that accounts for many biological properties of serum. LPA is thought to be produced during serum formation based on the fact that the LPA level is much higher in serum than in plasma. In this study, to better understand the pathways of LPA synthesis in serum, we evaluated(More)
Every successful pregnancy requires proper embryo implantation. Low implantation rate is a major problem during infertility treatments using assisted reproductive technologies. Here we report a newly discovered molecular influence on implantation through the lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor LPA3 (refs 2-4). Targeted deletion of LPA3 in mice resulted in(More)
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a pluripotent lipid mediator acting through plasma membrane-associated LPA(x) receptors that transduce many, but not all, of its effects. We identify peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) as an intracellular receptor for LPA. The transcription factor PPARgamma is activated by several lipid ligands, but(More)
Reciprocal interactions between blastocysts and receptive uteri are essential for successful implantation. This process is regulated by the timely interplay of two ovarian hormones, progesterone and estrogen. However, the molecular targets of these hormones are largely unknown. We showed recently that a small bioactive lysophospholipid, lysophosphatidic(More)
Autotaxin (ATX) is a multifunctional phosphodiesterase originally isolated from melanoma cells as a potent cell motility-stimulating factor. ATX is identical to lysophospholipase D, which produces a bioactive phospholipid, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), from lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). Although enhanced expression of ATX in various tumor tissues has been(More)
Autotaxin (ATX, also known as Enpp2) is a secreted lysophospholipase D that hydrolyzes lysophosphatidylcholine to generate lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a lipid mediator that activates G protein-coupled receptors to evoke various cellular responses. Here, we report the crystal structures of mouse ATX alone and in complex with LPAs with different acyl-chain(More)
Autotaxin (ATX) is a tumor cell motility-stimulating factor originally isolated from melanoma cell supernatant that has been implicated in regulation of invasive and metastatic properties of cancer cells. Recently, we showed that ATX is identical to lysophospholipase D, which converts lysophosphatidylcholine to a potent bioactive phospholipid mediator,(More)
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive phospholipid with diverse effects on various cells. It interacts with at least three G-protein-coupled transmembrane receptors, namely LPA1, LPA2 and LPA3, whose expression in various tumours has not been fully characterized. In the present study we characterized the expression profile of LPA receptors in human(More)
Gliostatin is a polypeptide growth inhibitor of apparent M(r) = 100,000 with a homodimeric structure comprising two 50-kDa subunits, acting on astrocyte as well as astrocytoma cells (Asai, K., Hirano, T., Kaneko, S., Moriyama, A., Nakanishi, K., Isobe, I., Eksioglu, Y.Z., and Kato, T. (1992) J. Neurochem., 59, 307-317). The amino acid sequences of 13(More)