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Antigen presenting cells recognize pathogens via pattern recognition receptors (PRR), which upon ligation transduce intracellular signals that can induce innate immune responses. Because some C-type lectin-like receptors (e.g. dectin-1 and DCSIGN) were shown to act as PRR for particular microbes, we considered a similar role for dectin-2. Binding assays(More)
T-cell activation is the net product of competing positive and negative signals transduced by regulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) binding to corresponding ligands on T cells. Having previously identified DC-HIL as a receptor expressed by APCs that contains an extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain, we postulated that it plays a(More)
BACKGROUND X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX) is a common inherited axonal or mixed axonal-demyelinating neuropathy. The disease is caused by mutations in the GJB1 gene encoding the gap junction protein connexin32, which is expressed in both Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system and oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. Several(More)
We previously produced mice with human hepatocyte (h-hep) chimeric livers by transplanting h-heps into albumin enhancer/promoter-driven urokinase-type plasminogen activator-transgenic severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice with liver disease. The chimeric livers were constructed with h-heps, mouse hepatocytes, and mouse hepatic sinusoidal cells(More)
Telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker with high lipid solubility, also called metabo-sartan, not only reduces blood pressure (BP), but also ameliorates inflammation in the cerebral cortex and in adipose tissue. We examined the effects of telmisartan on inflammatory responses of monocyte chemotactic protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and ionized(More)
The PDZ (PSD-95/Drosophila discs-large protein/zonula occludens protein) domain-containing proteins Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) and NHERF2 interact with the glutamate transporter GLAST. To characterize the roles of these NHERF proteins in the plasma membrane targeting of GLAST, we examined the interaction of green fluorescent protein(More)
BACKGROUND Telmisartan is a unique angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker with a partial peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonistic property to exert not only antihypertensive effect but also antimetabolic syndrome effect. METHODS We examined the long-term effect of telmisartan on cholesterol transport-related proteins (low-density(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder that causes muscle weakness, disability, respiratory failure, and eventually death. However, some ALS patients are diagnosed only after development of respiratory failure. To study the reason for delayed diagnosis of ALS, we reviewed cases of ALS patients with respiratory(More)
Intracerebral microdialysis combined with electroencephalographic recordings was performed on 4 dogs of a familial idiopathic epileptic Shetland sheepdog colony to identify the kinds of neurotransmitters responsible for seizure activity. Immunohistochemistry using glutamate (Glu), glutamate transporter (GLT-1 and GLAST), and glutamine synthetase (GS)(More)
Spectrin strengthens the red cell membrane through its direct association with membrane lipids and through protein-protein interactions. Spectrin loss reduces the membrane stability and results in various types of hereditary spherocytosis. However, less is known about acquired spectrin damage. Here, we showed that alpha- and beta-spectrin in human red cells(More)