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To develop tools for analysis of the acute phase response, we used suppression subtractive hybridization of cDNAs from the livers of trout in an unchallenged state and in the course of a response to injection with a Vibrio bacterin emulsified in Freund's Incomplete Adjuvant. The resulting cDNA library contains 300-600bp long fragments of 25 or more(More)
Mammalian complement components factor B and C2 act as proteolytic subunits of the C3 convertases in the alternative and the classical activation pathways, respectively, and are believed to have diverged from a common ancestor by gene duplication. However, it is unclear when the B/C2 duplication occurred. Here, we describe two diverged B/C2-like cDNA clones(More)
Suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH) is a powerful means to identify genes of cytokines and other genes that express small amount of mRNA. In this study, cDNA of normal fish (carp) head kidney cells (HKC) was subtracted from pooled cDNA of HKC and peritoneal cell (PC) obtained from fish which had been injected with sodium alginate (SA) and(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are integral to the mechanisms by which cells respond to physiological stimuli and a wide variety of environmental stresses. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the stress response is controlled by a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-like mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, which is regulated by MLK-1 MAPK(More)
Salmonids are descended from a common ancestor that underwent an autotetraploidization event. After a whole genome duplication species could deal with sex determination by deleting one copy of SEX, the sex determining locus, or by recruiting a duplicated transcription factor to become a novel sex determining gene. It is not known which if any of these(More)
Unlike mammals, some bony fish species have been reported to possess multiple forms of the complement component C3. To explore the structural and functional diversity of bony fish C3, we have isolated eight distinct cDNA clones encoding C3 from a single carp (Cyprinus carpio). The eight sequences were grouped into five C3 types, designated C3-H1, C3-H2,(More)
Natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF) is a member of the newly defined peroxiredoxin (Prx) family. Its functions are to enhance the cytotoxic capacity of natural killer cells and to prevent DNA and protein from being damaged by oxidative stress in the presence of thiol compounds. However, little is known about the structure and function of NKEF in lower(More)
The ability of neurons to regenerate their axons after injury is determined by a balance between cellular pathways that promote and those that inhibit regeneration. In Caenorhabditis elegans, axon regeneration is positively regulated by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase mitogen activated protein kinase pathway, which is activated by growth factor-receptor(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are integral to the mechanisms by which cells respond to physiological stimuli and a wide variety of environmental stresses. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the stress response is controlled by a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-like MAPK signaling pathway, which is regulated by MLK-1 MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK), MEK-1(More)