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Chloroplasts relocate their positions in a cell in response to the intensity of incident light, moving to the side wall of the cell to avoid strong light, but gathering at the front face under weak light to maximize light interception. Here, Arabidopsis thaliana mutants defective in the avoidance response were isolated, and the mutated gene was identified(More)
In Drosophila melanogaster, the wings apart-like (wapl) gene encodes a protein that regulates heterochromatin structure. Here, we characterize a novel human homologue of wapl (termed human WAPL; hWAPL). The hWAPL mRNA was predominantly expressed in uterine cervical cancer, with weak expression in all other normal and tumor tissues examined. hWAPL expression(More)
In order to understand the dynamics of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) luminal environment, we investigated the role of Ca(2+), Zn(2+), and ATP on conformational changes of calreticulin. Purified calreticulin was digested with trypsin in the presence or absence of Ca(2+), Zn(2+), and ATP. At low Ca(2+) concentration (<100 micrometer), calreticulin is rapidly(More)
BACKGROUND MicroRNAs are a family of 19- to 25-nucleotides noncoding small RNAs that primarily function as gene regulators. Aberrant microRNA expression has been described for several human malignancies, and this new class of small regulatory RNAs has both oncogenic and tumor suppressor functions. Despite this knowledge, there is little information(More)
Chromosomes are highly restricted to specific chromosome territories within the interphase nucleus. The arrangement of chromosome territories is non-random, exhibiting a defined radial distribution as well as a preferential association with specific nuclear compartments, which indicates a functional role for chromosome-territory organization in the(More)
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; dioxin) is the most toxic man-made member of the class of environmental pollutants represented by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. TCDD produces a wide variety of toxic effects. However, the downstream genes targeted by TCDD and their relation to the diversity of dioxin toxicity symptoms are(More)
Myxoid liposarcomas (MLSs) are characterized by t(12;16)(q13;p11) translocation and expression of TLS-CHOP chimeric oncoprotein. However, the molecular functions of TLS-CHOP have not been fully understood. On the other hand, microRNAs (miRNAs) comprise an abundant class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate the expression of their(More)
BACKGROUND Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a major cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapy is an attractive strategy alternative to conventional cancer treatments for HNSCC, but its efficacy remains controversial. T-cell-based immunotherapy has been proposed as a(More)
Casade Blue (CB), a fluorescent dye, was used to investigate the dynamics of interactions between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumenal chaperones including calreticulin, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), and ERp57. PDI and ERp57 were labeled with CB, and subsequently, we show that the fluorescence intensity of the CB-conjugated proteins changes upon exposure(More)
A chloroplast RNA polymerase sigma factor is encoded by a nuclear gene, sigA, in the red alga Cyanidium caldarium RK-1. The encoded protein functions as an RNA polymerase sigma factor in vitro and it is localized to the chloroplast in vivo. SigA shows high sequence similarity to the sigma factors of cyanobacteria, which is indicative of the ancestral(More)