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OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to characterise the incidence rates of herpes zoster (HZ), also known as shingles, and risk of complications across the world. DESIGN We systematically reviewed studies examining the incidence rates of HZ, temporal trends of HZ, the risk of complications including postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) and HZ-associated(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to systematically review cost-effectiveness studies of vaccination against herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). METHODS We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for eligible studies published prior to November 2013. We extracted information regarding model structure, model input parameters, and(More)
Geophagy, the regular and deliberate consumption of soil, is prevalent among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the associations of geophagy with anemia and helminth infection among 971 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive pregnant women in Tanzania. About 29% of pregnant women regularly consumed soil. Occupation, marital status, and(More)
OBJECTIVES The use of nasal stents as a postoperative adjunct following repair of choanal atresia remains controversial. The study objective was to systematically review the literature regarding the efficacy and safety of stenting following transnasal endoscopic repair of bilateral choanal atresia. STUDY DESIGN Systematic review with meta-analysis. (More)
BACKGROUND Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in children worldwide. We systematically reviewed the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) and distribution of rotavirus strains in Asia. METHODS We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the World Health Organization (WHO) website for the term "rotavirus" and the name of each country. We included(More)
HIV infection is a global disease that disproportionately burdens populations with nutritional vulnerabilities. Laboratory experiments have shown that selenium has an inhibitory effect on HIV in vitro through antioxidant effects of glutathione peroxidase and other selenoproteins. Numerous studies have reported low selenium status in HIV-infected(More)
BACKGROUND Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in Brazil. We examined the health and economic impacts of quadrivalent HPV vaccination in Brazil. METHODS We adapted a previously developed transmission dynamic model to estimate the effectiveness of HPV vaccination on cervical cancer, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 and 3(More)
BACKGROUND Herpes zoster (HZ), also known as shingles, is a painful and commonly occurring condition in the United States. In spite of a universally recommended vaccine for use in immunocompetent adults aged 60 years and older, HZ continues to impact the American public, and a better understanding of its current incidence is needed. The objective of the(More)
OBJECTIVE To systematically review randomized controlled trials comparing the effect of supplementation with multiple micronutrients versus iron and folic acid on pregnancy outcomes in developing countries. METHODS MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched. Outcomes of interest were birth weight, low birth weight, small size for gestational age, perinatal(More)
AIMS Early sexual debut is associated with increased HIV risk among young adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. Our study examines parents' and teachers' communication about sexual matters in relation to the timing of sexual initiation among students aged 12-14 years old in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS Virgin primary school students were followed(More)