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Second-order vestibular neurons form the central links of the vestibulo-oculomotor three-neuron arcs that mediate compensatory eye movements. Most of the axons that provide for vertical vestibulo-ocular reflexes ascend in the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) toward target neurons in the oculomotor and trochlear nuclei. We have now determined the(More)
The axonal pathway, conduction velocities, and locations of the cell bodies of utricular nerve-activated vestibulospinal neurons were studied in decerebrated or anesthetized cats using the collision test of orthodromic and antidromic spikes. For orthodromic stimulation, bipolar tungsten electrodes were placed on the utricular nerve and the other vestibular(More)
1. The cortico-cortical projection from area 5 to area 4 γ was studied in anesthetized cats. 2. Intracortical microstimulation of area 5 produced EPSPs in pyramidal tract (PT) cells in area 4 γ. Such EPSPs were analysed in a total of 54 fast PT cells. The rising phase of these EPSPs was often composed of fast and slow components. 3. Fast-rising EPSPs (fast(More)
Our previous study revealed that alginate gel cross-linked with covalent bonds promoted peripheral nerve regeneration in the cat and rat. The present study analyzed nerve regeneration through alginate gel in the early stages within 2 weeks and the late stages up to 21 months after implantation. Four days after surgery, regenerating axons grew without(More)
AIMS Centrally administered insulin improves cognitive functions in patients with Alzheimer's disease; however, it remains unknown whether long-acting insulin analogs exert more pronounced effects than insulin. In the present study, we directly compared the effects of insulin and its analogs on neural functions in vitro and in vivo. METHODS Cultured rat(More)
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