Kostas B Markou

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Iodine is an essential element for thyroid hormone synthesis. The thyroid gland has the capacity and holds the machinery to handle the iodine efficiently when the availability of iodine becomes scarce, as well as when iodine is available in excessive quantities. The latter situation is handled by the thyroid by acutely inhibiting the organification of(More)
Optimal growth depends upon both environmental and genetic factors. Among environmental factors that could alter growth and sexual maturation are stress and intensive physical training. The influence of these factors has been documented in a variety of sports, but there is limited information on rhythmic gymnasts, who have entirely different training and(More)
Steroids determination in saliva offers several advantages. The collection of saliva is a noninvasive, less stressful technique than blood withdrawal and reflects the circulating unbound fractions. The suitability of saliva for 17-hydroxyprogesterone and cortisol determinations has been documented in healthy subjects as well as in diseases like Congenital(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the rate of complications and the risk factors in relation to the extent of surgery in patients undergoing thyroidectomy in a tertiary university center. DESIGN Data were collected retrospectively from 2,043 consecutive patients who underwent thyroid surgery for various thyroid diseases at the University Hospital of Patras, Greece,(More)
Rhythmic gymnasts performing under conditions of high intensity are exposed to particularly high levels of psychological stress and intense physical training, factors that can contribute to the observed delay in skeletal maturation and pubertal development, and alter optimal growth. The study was conducted in the field, during the International, European,(More)
CONTEXT In animals, acute iodine administration results in acute intrathyroidal inhibition of iodinations followed by escape of the inhibition if the excessive iodine intake continues. In humans, the intrathyroidal nonhormonal and hormonal iodine concentration after exposure to large doses of iodine for a relatively long period of time is not known. (More)
The goal of this study was to assess the prevalence of iodine deficiency (ID) in Azerbaijan after the discontinuation of an iodine prophylaxis program by assessing the prevalence of goiter, iodine intake, and thyroid function. The study included 942 schoolchildren (475 boys and 467 girls) ages 8-14 years, from 13 distinct regions. The survey included the(More)
We studied 129 female rhythmic gymnasts (RG) and 142 female artistic gymnasts (AG) who participated in the 1999 Gymnastics World Championship for RG in Osaka, Japan, and the 1999 and 2001 Gymnastics World Championships for AG in Tianjin, China (n = 48), and Ghent, Belgium (n = 94), respectively. RG were taller than average, with a mean height SD score above(More)
Genetic potential for growth can be fully expressed only under favorable environmental conditions. Although moderate physical activity has beneficial effects on growth, excessive physical training may negatively affect it. Sports favoring restricted energy availability, in the presence of high energy expenditure, are of particular concern. In gymnastics, a(More)
BACKGROUND Suppressive or replacement doses of levothyroxine (LT4) are affected by the rate and extent of the active ingredient absorbed, as well as by the lean body mass. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and is related with many comorbidities. The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of LT4 in severely obese(More)