Kostas B Markou

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Hormonal determination in saliva offers several advantages. Peptides enter the salivary glands either by active transport mechanisms or are expressed and secreted by the salivary glands themselves. The collection of saliva is a noninvasive, easily repeatable and less stressful technique than blood withdrawal. The purpose of the present study was to(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of intensive physical exercise and acute psychological stress during high level athletic competition as reflected on the levels of salivary cortisol in elite artistic gymnasts (AGs). DESIGN The study included 239 AGs (142 females-97 males) who participated in the European Championship of(More)
The genetic potentials for growth can be fully expressed only under favourable environmental conditions. Excessive physical training may negatively affect growth, especially during puberty. Sports that require a strict control of energy input in the presence of a high energy output are of particular concern. In gymnastics, a different pattern in skeletal(More)
Steroids determination in saliva offers several advantages. The collection of saliva is a noninvasive, less stressful technique than blood withdrawal and reflects the circulating unbound fractions. The suitability of saliva for 17-hydroxyprogesterone and cortisol determinations has been documented in healthy subjects as well as in diseases like Congenital(More)
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