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Crucial to the interpretation of the results of any finite element analysis of a skeletal system is a test of the validity of the results and an assessment of the sensitivity of the model parameters. We have therefore developed finite element models of two crania of Macaca fascicularis and investigated their sensitivity to variations in bone material(More)
Research on the evolution and adaptive significance of primate craniofacial morphologies has focused on adult, fully developed individuals. Here, we investigate the possible relationship between the local stress environment arising from masticatory loadings and the emergence of the supraorbital torus in the developing face of the crab-eating macaque Macaca(More)
This paper provides the first endocranial description of the matrix-filled archaic Homo sapiens cranium from Eliye Springs, Kenya. Using CT-based 3D reconstruction, the virtually cleaned endocranial surface allowed for the assessment of more than 30 metrical and nonmetrical features, most of which are considered of phylogenetic importance. The VOXEL-MAN(More)
Neanderthals have a distinctive suite of dental features, including large anterior crown and root dimensions and molars with enlarged pulp cavities. Yet, there is little known about variation in molar root morphology in Neanderthals and other recent and fossil members of Homo. Here, we provide the first comprehensive metric analysis of permanent mandibular(More)
The extinct great ape Gigantopithecus blacki from the middle Pleistocene of China and Vietnam is known only from dental and mandibular remains, and its dietary specializations remain contentious. Here, for the first time, we describe the root morphology in G. blacki using computed tomography and three-dimensional image processing. We quantify the tooth root(More)
Tooth root length has been shown to taxonomically distinguish Neanderthals from modern humans. However, this may result from differences in jaw size between both taxa, although most previous studies have revealed a very low or non-existent correlation between tooth size and jaw size in recent modern humans. We therefore investigated, within a broader(More)
Evaluating stress and strain fields in anatomical structures is a way to test hypotheses that relate specific features of facial and skeletal morphology to mechanical loading. Engineering techniques such as finite element analysis are now commonly used to calculate stress and strain fields, but if we are to fully accept these methods we must be confident(More)
Whilst the periodontal ligament (PDL) acts as an attachment tissue between bone and tooth, hypotheses regarding the role of the PDL as a hydrodynamic damping mechanism during intraoral food processing have highlighted its potential importance in finite element (FE) analysis. Although experimental and constitutive models have correlated the mechanical(More)
Molar crown morphology varies among primates from relatively simple in some taxa to more complex in others, with such variability having both functional and taxonomic significance. In addition to the primary cusps, crown surface complexity derives from the presence of crests, cuspules, and crenulations. Developmentally, this complexity results from the(More)
Variation in terrestrial mammalian skull morphology is known to constrain feeding performance, which in turn influences dietary habits and ultimately fitness. Among mustelids, otters have evolved two feeding specializations: underwater raptorial capture of prey (mouth-oriented) and capture of prey by hand (hand-oriented), both of which have likely(More)