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Continuous monitoring of arterio-venous glucose and lactate differences may serve as a diagnostic tool to assess normal brain function and brain pathology. We describe a method and some results obtained with arterio-venous measurements of glucose and lactate in the blood of the halothane-anesthetized rat and after brain injury. The method is based on low(More)
The time course of changes in the tissue impedance and the levels of extracellular transmitter and non-transmitter amino acids was studied in the striatum and hippocampus of the unanesthetized rat after cardiac arrest. Electrodes were implanted for the continuous measurement of tissue impedance so that a measure of the volume of extracellular space was(More)
Extracellular levels of amino acids were estimated in dialysates of the rat striatum that were collected 1, 2, and/or more than 5 days after surgery, before (resting release) and during exposure to high K concentrations (50 mM) or electroconvulsive shocks. The resting release of several amino acids (Glu, Asn, Thr, Tau, Tyr, Gly, and Ala) was higher 9 days(More)
The cations, calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium, putative amino acid transmitters, and total protein contents were assessed in the frontal cortex, putamen, and substantia nigra of Huntington's disease (HD) patients and age-matched nonneurologic control subjects. In the HD frontal cortex and HD substantia nigra, only small increases in sodium levels(More)
Extracellular lactate of the rat hippocampus is inter alia increased by immobilization stress. The origin of lactate is, however, not well established, so it is not known whether it is mainly derived form neurons or glial cells. Dialysates were collected shortly (1 or 2 days) or with a delay (14 or 15 days) after implantation of the probe. In the short-term(More)
Lactate derived from glucose can serve as an energy source in the brain. However, it is not certain how much lactate, directly taken from the blood circulation, may replace glucose as an energy source. This study aimed to estimate the uptake, release, and utilization of lactate entering the brain from the blood circulation. The change in cerebral(More)
In an attempt to estimate the pool size of glutamate and other amino acids in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-containing neurons, we determined the content of 12 amino acids in the bilateral substantia nigra of rats, in which unilateral striatal lesions had been made with kainic acid two weeks earlier. The assay of the amino acids (including glutamate,(More)
The influence of desmethylimipramine (DMI) on the release of endogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and some other amino acids from the rat thalamus was studied with a push-pull perfusion technique. Following HPLC the amino acids were fluorimetrically estimated. Added to the perfusion medium at a concentration of 10 mumol L-1, DMI caused a 5- to 10-fold(More)
Fermentation of dietary fibres by colonic microbes leads to the production of short chain fatty acids (mainly propionate, butyrate and acetate), which are utilized by the colonic mucosa. Previous studies showed positive effects of butyrate on parameters of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. Recent studies in rats, however, showed that butyrate(More)