Koppara Samuel

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Diclofenac is eliminated predominantly (approximately 50%) as its 4'-hydroxylated metabolite in humans, whereas the acyl glucuronide (AG) pathway appears more important in rats (approximately 50%) and dogs (>80-90%). However, previous studies of diclofenac oxidative metabolism in human liver microsomes (HLMs) have yielded pronounced underprediction of human(More)
The discovery of novel acyclic amide cannabinoid-1 receptor inverse agonists is described. They are potent, selective, orally bioavailable, and active in rodent models of food intake and body weight reduction. A major focus of the optimization process was to increase in vivo efficacy and to reduce the potential for formation of reactive metabolites. These(More)
Metabolic activation of drug candidates to electrophilic reactive metabolites that can covalently modify cellular macromolecules may result in acute and/or idiosyncratic immune system-mediated toxicities in humans. This presents a significant potential liability for the future development of these compounds as safe therapeutic agents. We present here an(More)
The metabolism and excretion of taranabant (MK-0364, N-[(1S,2S)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(3-cyanophenyl)-1-methylpropyl]-2-methyl-2{[5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine-2-yl]oxy}propanamide), a potent cannabinoid-1 receptor inverse agonist, were evaluated in rats and rhesus monkeys. Following administration of [¹⁴C]taranabant, the majority of the radioactivity was(More)
3-[(3aR,4R,5S,7aS)-5-{(1R)-1-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethoxy}-4-(4-fluorophenyl)octahydro-2H-isoindol-2-yl]cyclopent-2-en-1-one (17) is a high affinity, brain-penetrant, hydroisoindoline-based neurokinin-1 (NK(1)) receptor antagonist with a long central duration of action in preclinical species and a minimal drug-drug interaction profile. Positron(More)
1. Omarigliptin (MARIZEV®) is a once-weekly DPP-4 inhibitor approved in Japan for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to investigate the absorption, metabolism and excretion of omarigliptin in humans. 2. Six healthy subjects received a single oral dose of 25 mg (2.1 μCi) [14 C]omarigliptin. Blood, plasma, urine and fecal(More)
A structure-activity relationship study of the imidazolyl-β-tetrahydrocarboline series identified MK-4256 as a potent, selective SSTR3 antagonist, which demonstrated superior efficacy in a mouse oGTT model. MK-4256 reduced glucose excursion in a dose-dependent fashion with maximal efficacy achieved at doses as low as 0.03 mg/kg po. As compared with(More)
Antagonism of somatostatin subtype receptor 3 (sstr3) has emerged as a potential treatment of Type 2 diabetes. Unfortunately, the development of our first preclinical candidate, MK-4256, was discontinued due to a dose-dependent QTc (QT interval corrected for heart rate) prolongation observed in a conscious cardiovascular (CV) dog model. As the fate of the(More)
The imidazolyl-tetrahydro-β-carboline class of sstr3 antagonists have demonstrated efficacy in a murine model of glucose excursion and may have potential as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. The first candidate in this class caused unacceptable QTc interval prolongation in oral, telemetrized cardiovascular (CV) dogs. Herein, we describe our efforts to(More)