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Our knowledge of species and functional composition of the human gut microbiome is rapidly increasing, but it is still based on very few cohorts and little is known about variation across the world. By combining 22 newly sequenced faecal metagenomes of individuals from four countries with previously published data sets, here we identify three robust(More)
Gene expression in plastids of higher plants is dependent on two different transcription machineries, a plastid-encoded bacterial-type RNA polymerase (PEP) and a nuclear-encoded phage-type RNA polymerase (NEP), which recognize distinct types of promoters. The division of labor between PEP and NEP during plastid development and in mature chloroplasts is(More)
New advances in sequencing technologies bring random shotgun sequencing of ecosystems within reach of smaller labs, but the complexity of metagenomics data can be overwhelming. Recently, many novel computational tools have been developed to unravel ecosystem properties starting from fragmented sequences. In addition, the so-called 'comparative metagenomics'(More)
Campylobacter jejuni is currently the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Comparison of multiple Campylobacter strains revealed a high genetic and phenotypic diversity. However, little is known about differences in transcriptome organization, gene expression, and small RNA (sRNA) repertoires. Here we present the first comparative primary(More)
While the model organism Escherichia coli has been the subject of intense study for decades, the full complement of its RNAs is only now being examined. Here we describe a survey of the E. coli transcriptome carried out using a differential RNA sequencing (dRNA-seq) approach, which can distinguish between primary and processed transcripts, and an automated(More)
Quorum sensing (QS) is a process of cell-to-cell communication that enables bacteria to transition between individual and collective lifestyles. QS controls virulence and biofilm formation in Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera disease. Differential RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of wild-type V. cholerae and a locked low-cell-density QS-mutant strain(More)
Bacteria express many small RNAs for which the regulatory roles in pathogenesis have remained poorly understood due to a paucity of robust phenotypes in standard virulence assays. Here we use a generic 'dual RNA-seq' approach to profile RNA expression simultaneously in pathogen and host during Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection and reveal the(More)
The Staphylococcus aureus genome codes for a sigma factor that shows close sequence similarity to the alternative sigma factor sigmaB of Bacillus subtilis. However, of the proteins controlling the activity of sigmaB in B. subtilis only RsbU, RsbV, and RsbW are encoded in the staphylococcal genome. Therefore, the regulation of the sigmaB activity must differ(More)
To test the impact of environments on genome evolution, we analysed the relative abundance of the nucleotides guanine and cytosine ('GC content') of large numbers of sequences from four distinct environmental samples (ocean surface water, farm soil, an acidophilic mine drainage biofilm and deep-sea whale carcasses). We show that the GC content of complex(More)
The prothrombin (F2) 3' end formation signal is highly susceptible to thrombophilia-associated gain-of-function mutations. In its unusual architecture, the F2 3' UTR contains an upstream sequence element (USE) that compensates for weak activities of the non-canonical cleavage site and the downstream U-rich element. Here, we address the mechanism of USE(More)