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Neurons of self-defence: neuronal innervation of the exocrine defence glands in stick insects
TLDR
Axonal tracing shows a very complex innervation pattern of the defence glands of Phasmatodea which contains different neurons in different nerves from two adjacent body segments, and some evolutionary changes are notable in a conserved neuronal network.
Functional morphology and neuronal innervation of the prothoracic defence gland in Timema
TLDR
The hypothesis that in euphasmids, the muscular part of the gland evolved from the dorsal longitudinal neck muscles in all Polyneoptera also innervate the defence glands in phasmids is supported.
Multiple Identified Neurons and Peripheral Nerves Innervating the Prothoracic Defense Glands in Stick Insects Reveal Evolutionary Conserved and Novel Elements of a Chemical Defense System
TLDR
The innervating nerves for dorsal longitudinal muscles are conserved in stick insects, while the neuronal control system was specialized with conserved mot oneurons for the persisting neck muscles, and evolutionarily novel suboesophageal and prothoracic motoneurons innervated the defense gland.