Konrad Gronke

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Human group 1 ILCs consist of at least three phenotypically distinct subsets, including NK cells, CD127(+) ILC1, and intraepithelial CD103(+) ILC1. In inflamed intestinal tissues from Crohn's disease patients, numbers of CD127(+) ILC1 increased at the cost of ILC3. Here we found that differentiation of ILC3 to CD127(+) ILC1 is reversible in vitro and in(More)
The epithelium is the main entry point for many viruses, but the processes that protect barrier surfaces against viral infections are incompletely understood. Here we identified interleukin 22 (IL-22) produced by innate lymphoid cell group 3 (ILC3) as an amplifier of signaling via interferon-λ (IFN-λ), a synergism needed to curtail the replication of(More)
Microglia, innate immune cells of the CNS, sense infection and damage through overlapping receptor sets. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 recognizes bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and multiple injury-associated factors. We show that its co-receptor CD14 serves three non-redundant functions in microglia. First, it confers an up to 100-fold higher LPS(More)
Epithelial cells are a major port of entry for many viruses, but the molecular networks which protect barrier surfaces against viral infections are incompletely understood. Viral infections induce simultaneous production of type I (IFN-α/β) and type III (IFN-λ) interferons. All nucleated cells are believed to respond to IFN-α/β, whereas IFN-λ responses are(More)
Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) have only recently been recognized as a separate entity of the lymphoid lineage. Their subpopulations share common characteristics in terms of early development and major transcriptional circuitry with their related cousins of the T cell world. It is currently hypothesized that ILCs constitute an evolutionary older version of the(More)
The intestinal mucosa constitutes the biggest surface area of the body. It is constantly challenged by bacteria, commensal and pathogenic, protozoa, and food-derived irritants. In order to maintain homeostasis, a complex network of signaling circuits has evolved that includes contributions of immune cells. In recent years a subset of lymphocytes, which(More)
The Ly49E receptor is preferentially expressed on murine innate-like lymphocytes, such as epidermal Vγ3 T cells, intestinal intraepithelial CD8αα+ T lymphocytes, and CD49a+ liver natural killer (NK) cells. As the latter have recently been shown to be distinct from conventional NK cells and have innate lymphoid cell type 1 (ILC1) properties, we investigated(More)
Comparison P-values based on … Bray-Curtis index Jaccard index Il22 –/– vs. WT 0.247 0.244 Litter 5 vs. litter 6 0.358 0.503 Il22 –/– from litter 5 vs. Il22 –/– from litter 6 1 1 WT from litter 5 vs. WT from litter 6 0.396 0.183 Il22 –/– from litter 5 vs. WT from litter 5 1 1 Il22 –/– from litter 6 vs. WT from litter 6 0.1 0.295
The epithelial-cell layer that lines the intestine acts as a protective barrier against a plethora of microbes and toxic nutrients. As such, it often needs to be rapidly repaired — a process that is initiated by intestinal stem cells (ISCs), which reside in specialized niches at the bottom of small pits called crypts in the intestinal wall. In steadystate(More)
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