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Laminin 332, composed of the α3, β3 and γ2 chains, is an epithelial-basement membrane specific laminin variant. Its main role in normal tissues is the maintenance of epithelial-mesenchymal cohesion in tissues exposed to external forces, including skin and stratified squamous mucosa. After being secreted and deposited in the extracellular matrix, laminin 332(More)
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have therapeutic potential, particularly for localized infections such as those of the lung. Here we show that airway administration of a pegylated AMP minimizes lung tissue toxicity while nevertheless maintaining antimicrobial activity. CaLL, a potent synthetic AMP (KWKLFKKIFKRIVQRIKDFLR) comprising fragments of LL-37 and(More)
Human ryanodine receptor 2 (hRyR2) mediates calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, enabling cardiomyocyte contraction. The N-terminal region of hRyR2 (amino acids 1-606) is the target of >30 arrhythmogenic mutations and contains a binding site for phosphoprotein phosphatase 1. Here, the solution and crystal structures determined under(More)
The LG4 module of the laminin alpha 3 chain (alpha 3 LG4), a component of epithelial-specific laminin-5, has cell attachment activity and binds syndecan (Utani, A., Nomizu, M., Matsuura, H., Kato, K., Kobayashi, T., Takeda, U., Aota, S., Nielsen, P. K., and Shinkai, H. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 28779-28788). Here, we show that recombinant alpha 3 LG4 and a(More)
We previously reported that the LG4 domain of the laminin alpha4 chain is responsible for high-affinity heparin binding. To specify the amino acid residues involved in this activity, we produced a series of alpha4 LG4-fusion proteins in which each of the 27 basic residues (arginine, R; histidine; lysine, K) were replaced one by one with alanine (A). When(More)
Transglutaminases (TG) form a family of enzymes that catalyse various post-translational modifications of glutamine residues in proteins and peptides including intra- and intermolecular isopeptide bond formation, esterification and deamidation. We have characterized a novel member of the mammalian TG family, TG6, which is expressed in a human carcinoma cell(More)
Nuclear and mitochondrial (mt) forms of chicken mt transcription factor A (c-TFAM) generated by alternative splicing of a gene (c-tfam) were cloned. c-tfam mapped at 6q1.1-q1.2 has similar exon/intron organization as mouse tfam except that the first exons encoding the nuclear and the mt form-specific sequences were positioned oppositely. When cDNA encoding(More)
Presentation of identical HIV-1 peptides by closely related Human Leukocyte Antigen class I (HLAI) molecules can select distinct patterns of escape mutation that have a significant impact on viral fitness and disease progression. The molecular mechanisms by which HLAI micropolymorphisms can induce differential HIV-1 escape patterns within identical peptide(More)
Keratinocyte migration during epidermal repair depends on interactions between cellular heparan sulfate proteoglycan receptors, syndecan-1 and -4, and the C-terminal globular domains (LG45) of the extracellular matrix protein laminin 332. This study investigates the molecular basis of the binding specificity of the syndecan-1 and -4 receptors expressed by(More)
Calmodulin (CaM) is a cytoplasmic calcium sensor that interacts with the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2), a large Ca(2+) channel complex that mediates Ca(2+) efflux from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) to activate cardiac muscle contraction. Direct CaM association with RyR2 is an important physiological regulator of cardiac muscle excitation-contraction(More)