Learn More
Activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 regulates expression of phase II enzymes and other adaptive responses to electrophile and oxidant stress. Nrf2 concentrations are regulated by the thiol-rich sensor protein Keap1, which is an adaptor protein for Cul3-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of Nrf2. However, the links between site specificity of(More)
The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates induction of an extensive cellular stress response network when complexed with the cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CBP) at antioxidant response elements (ARE) located in the promoter region of target genes. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) can(More)
Smooth muscle preparations of human aorta or pig coronary arteries contain nearly equal amounts of cGMP-dependent protein kinase isozymes (cGMP kinase I alpha and I beta). In order to understand the roles of these isozymes in relaxing vascular smooth muscle, several new cGMP analogs were synthesized and tested for potencies in activating each enzyme and in(More)
Naturally occurring methylxanthines were the first inhibitors of cyclic nucleotide (cN) phosphodiesterases (PDEs) to be discovered. To improve potency and specificity for inhibition of various PDEs in research and for treatment of diseases, thousands of compounds with related structures have now been synthesized. All known PDE inhibitors contain one or more(More)
The regulation of cellular stress responses to electrophiles and oxidants is mediated by the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which, in turn, is regulated by CUL-E3 (CUL3) ligase-mediated ubiquitylation. The Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) serves as an adapter between CUL3 and Nrf2. We used the model electrophile N-iodoacetyl-(More)
BACKGROUND Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality. Overexpression of specific phase II gene products may represent an important biomarker. One regulator of phase II gene expression is the transcription factor nuclear factor E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Nrf2 expression was evaluated in HNSCC,(More)
This study provides evidence that in mammary epithelial cells the pluripotent cytokine TGF-beta1 repressed expression of multiple genes involved in Phase II detoxification. GCLC, the gene that encodes the catalytic subunit of the enzyme glutamate cysteine ligase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of glutathione, was used as a molecular surrogate(More)
The physiological role of phosphodiesterase (PDE)11 is unknown and its biochemical characteristics are poorly understood. We have expressed human His-tagged PDE11A4 and purified the enzyme to apparent homogeneity. PDE11A4 displays K(m) values of 0.97 microM for cGMP and 2.4 microM for cAMP, and maximal velocities were 4- to 10-fold higher for cAMP than for(More)
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) have been investigated for years as targets for therapeutic intervention in a number of pathophysiological processes. Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5), which is highly specific for guanosine 3'-5'-cyclic-monophosphate (cGMP) at both its catalytic site and its allosteric sites, has generated particular interest because(More)
Exposure of HepG2 cells to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (i.e., indomethacin and ibuprofen; NSAIDs) as well as resveratrol, caused increased expression of the mRNAs coding for the catalytic (Gclc) and modifier (Gclm) subunits of the glutathione synthetic enzyme, gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. In addition, indomethacin exposure increased(More)