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The importance of conversation in second languages during international collaboration continues to increase, as does the risk of miscommunication caused by the differences in the linguistic proficiency of participants. This study provides a basis for monitoring each participant's status by studying the effects of linguistic proficiency on such communicative(More)
The importance of conversation in a second language (L2) during international collaboration continues to increase, but the features of non-verbal communications such as eye gaze and gestures in L2 conversation have not been clarified to the extent they have in the native language (L1). This study provides quantitative analyses of eye gaze activities to(More)
We analyze gazes during silence in multi-party conversation and compare them between conversations among native-language speakers and those among second-language speakers. The duration of gaze during silence shows a significant difference between these two conditions: Gaze during silence is longer in a second-language conversation. Correlation analyses for(More)
The listener’s gazing activities during utterances were analyzed in a face-to-face three-party conversation setting. The function of each utterance was categorized according to the Grounding Acts defined by Traum (Traum, 1994) so that gazes during utterances could be analyzed from the viewpoint of grounding in communication (Clark, 1996). Quantitative(More)
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