Kok P. M. van Kessel

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Two newly discovered immune modulators, chemotaxis inhibitory protein of Staphylococcus aureus (CHIPS) and staphylococcal complement inhibitor (SCIN), cluster on the conserved 3' end of beta-hemolysin (hlb)-converting bacteriophages (betaC-phis). Since these betaC-phis also carry the genes for the immune evasion molecules staphylokinase (sak) and(More)
Defensins, antimicrobial peptides of the innate immune system, protect human mucosal epithelia and skin against microbial infections and are produced in large amounts by neutrophils. The bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is insensitive to defensins by virtue of an unknown resistance mechanism. We describe a novel staphylococcal gene, mprF, which(More)
The complement system is pivotal in host defense but also contributes to tissue injury in several diseases. The assembly of C3 convertases (C4b2a and C3bBb) is a prerequisite for complement activation. The convertases catalyze C3b deposition on activator surfaces. Here we describe the identification of staphylococcal complement inhibitor, an excreted(More)
OBJECTIVE Lipoproteins have been implicated to play a role in innate immunity. Changes in lipoprotein levels have been reported in a variety of inflammatory disorders. Not much is known about lipoprotein metabolism in patients with severe sepsis. We conducted an ancillary study in a multiple-center phase III sepsis trial to investigate the dynamics of(More)
Leukocyte migration is a key event both in host defense against invading pathogens as well as in inflammation. Bacteria generate chemoattractants primarily by excretion (formylated peptides), complement activation (C5a), and subsequently through activation of leukocytes (e.g., leukotriene B4, platelet-activating factor, and interleukin 8). Here we describe(More)
To combat the human immune response, bacteria should be able to divert the effectiveness of the complement system. We identify four potent complement inhibitors in Staphylococcus aureus that are part of a new immune evasion cluster. Two are homologues of the C3 convertase modulator staphylococcal complement inhibitor (SCIN) and function in a similar way as(More)
Recently we described a novel bacteriophage-encoded pathogenicity island in Staphylococcus aureus that harbors a number of virulence factors that are all involved in the evasion of innate immunity. Here we describe a mechanism by which staphylokinase (SAK), frequently present on this pathogenicity island, interferes with innate immune defenses: SAK is(More)
Bacteria have developed mechanisms to escape the first line of host defense, which is constituted by the recruitment of phagocytes to the sites of bacterial invasion. We previously described the chemotaxis inhibitory protein of Staphylococcus aureus, a protein that blocks the activation of neutrophils via the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) and C5aR. We now(More)
Upon entering the human body, bacteria are confronted with the sophisticated innate defense mechanisms of the human host. From work in recent years it has become obvious that a new and growing family of small and excreted proteins can counteract the antibacterial effects of innate immunity. These highly selective proteins pick out crucial elements of our(More)
Staphylococcus aureus excretes a factor that specifically and simultaneously acts on the C5aR and the formylated peptide receptor (FPR). This chemotaxis inhibitory protein of S. aureus (CHIPS) blocks C5a- and fMLP-induced phagocyte activation and chemotaxis. Monoclonal anti-CHIPS Abs inhibit CHIPS activity against one receptor completely without affecting(More)