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Infection by HIV-1 involves the fusion of viral and cellular membranes with subsequent transfer of viral genetic material into the cell. The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein that mediates fusion consists of the surface subunit gp120 and the transmembrane subunit gp41. gp120 directs virion attachment to the cell-surface receptors, and gp41 then promotes(More)
The crystal structure of a complex involving the D10 T cell receptor (TCR), 16-residue foreign peptide antigen, and the I-Ak self major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule is reported at 3.2 angstrom resolution. The D10 TCR is oriented in an orthogonal mode relative to its peptide-MHC (pMHC) ligand, necessitated by the amino-terminal(More)
Integrins alpha(E)beta(7) and alpha(4)beta(7) are involved in localization of leukocytes at mucosal sites. Although both alpha(E)beta(7) and alpha(4)beta(7) utilize the beta(7) chain, they have distinct binding specificities for E-cadherin and mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1), respectively. We found that mutation of the metal(More)
In this paper, we investigate how two main factors affect the efficiency of the port operation. The two main factors are type of transport vehicles and layout of the storage yard. Two different types of transport vehicles (i.e., prime mover and shuttle carrier) and two different types of layouts (i.e., with or without chassis lane beside the container(More)
Seaport container terminals are essential nodes in sea cargo transportation networks. As such, the operational efficiency of container terminals in handling containers passing through them plays a critical role in a globalized world economy. Many models and algorithms have been developed to address various decision problems in container terminals to help(More)
BACKGROUND Mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (MAdCAM-1) is a cell adhesion molecule that is expressed on the endothelium in mucosa, and guides the specific homing of lymphocytes into mucosal tissues. MAdCAM-1 belongs to a subclass of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), the members of which are ligands for integrins. Human MAdCAM-1 has a unique(More)
In this paper we study automatic classification of working areas in peripheral blood smears using image analysis and recognition methods. Such automatic classification can provide objective and reproducible quality control for the evaluation of smears and smear maker devices. However, research in this filed has drawn little attention. Existing methods(More)
Knowledge on how genes are turned on/off during infection and immunity is lacking. Here, we report the co-regulation of diverse clusters of functionally related immune response genes in a horseshoe crab, Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda. Expressed sequence tag (EST) clusters for frontline immune defense, cell signalling, apoptosis and stress response genes were(More)
The selective emigration of blood born leukocytes into tissues is mediated, in part by interactions of Ig-like cell adhesion molecules (IgCAMs) expressed on vascular endothelium and their cognate ligands, the leukocyte integrins. Within mucosal lymphoid tissues and gastrointestinal sites the mucosal vascular addressin. MAdCAM-1 is the predominant IgCAM,(More)