Kok Ben Toh

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Berthing pontoons, one of the most ubiquitous structures in marinas, are known to provide recruitment substrate for a variety of marine biota but little has been reported on their capacity to support epibiotic organisms in tropical marinas, and even less is known about the factors that shape their distribution in such environments. We surveyed the epibiotic(More)
Dense aggregations of a cucumariid sea cucumber were first observed in December 2012 on a sedimented coral reef at Sultan Shoal (1°14’22.40”N, 103°38’53.06”E), a small coralfringed island south of mainland Singapore (Fig. 1a). Individuals of 3–4 cm length were found tightly nested on rocks (Fig. 1b), rubble, and the underside and dead sections of coral(More)
Size-dependent mortality influences the recolonization success of juvenile corals transplanted for reef restoration and assisting juvenile corals attain a refuge size would thus improve post-transplantation survivorship. To explore colony size augmentation strategies, recruits of the scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis were fed with live Artemia(More)
Singapore’s hermatypic coral diversity of 255 species represents about a third of the global total. This high diversity remains despite the loss of about 60% of the country’s coral reefs to coastal development over the past five decades. The remaining coral reefs are exposed to coastal use pressures including sedimentation, and live coral cover has declined(More)
Coral bleaching events have been predicted to occur more frequently in the coming decades with global warming. The susceptibility of corals to bleaching during thermal stress episodes is dependent on many factors and an understanding of these underlying drivers is crucial for conservation management. In 2013, a mild bleaching episode ensued in response to(More)
Camouflage is a key predation prevention mechanism. The most intuitive camouflage strategy is background matching, where a prey resembles the colour and pattern of its background. Spots (e.g. geometric ‘elements’ that constitute a pattern) are a common feature on the body of prey, but the effect of their size in relation to elements in the background is(More)
Most of Singapore’s coastline has been modified by coastal development with variable influences on marine biodiversity. Marinas are typically designed as a semienclosed environment with a complex mix of structures that provide ecological niches throughout the water body. Water flow is inevitably reduced with a possible decline of water quality. This(More)
Rapid coastal development has generated interest in the ecology of human-modified marine environments. Coastal defence structures such as breakwaters and seawalls are increasingly built to reduce erosion and to mitigate the impacts of sea level rise but knowledge on the marine biodiversity around these structures is lacking. Benthic cover and fish community(More)
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