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We have performed an in situ test of the iron limitation hypothesis in the subarctic North Pacific Ocean. A single enrichment of dissolved iron caused a large increase in phytoplankton standing stock and decreases in macronutrients and dissolved carbon dioxide. The dominant phytoplankton species shifted after the iron addition from pennate diatoms to a(More)
Excess administration of glutamate is known to induce Ca(2+) overload in neurons, which is the first step in excitotoxicity. Although some reports have suggested a role for Mg(2+) in the excitotoxicity, little is known about its actual contribution. To investigate the role of Mg(2+) in the excitotoxicity, we simultaneously measured intracellular Ca(2+) and(More)
Mg(2+) plays important roles in numerous cellular functions. Mitochondria take part in intracellular Mg(2+) regulation and the Mg(2+) concentration in mitochondria affects the synthesis of ATP. However, there are few methods to observe Mg(2+) in mitochondria in intact cells. Here, we have developed a novel Mg(2+)-selective fluorescent probe, KMG-301, that(More)
Autophagy is a process of self-digestion generally observed in eukaryotes and has been shown to play crucial roles for survival under starvation and removal of deleterious substances. Despite great advances that have been made, many problems in mechanisms of autophagy remain unsolved. As a large number of autophagy-related proteins are identified in each(More)
Ψ(x, y) denotes the number of positive integers ≤ x and free of prime factors > y. Hildebrand and Tenenbaum provided a good approximation of Ψ(x, y). However, their method requires the solution α = α(x, y) to the equation p≤y log p/(p α − 1) = log x, and therefore it needs a large amount of time for the numerical solution of the above equation for large y.(More)
To determine the nature of intracellular Mg2+ stores and Mg2+ release mechanisms in differentiated PC12 cells, Mg2+ and Ca2+ mobilizations were measured simultaneously in living cells with KMG-104, a fluorescent Mg2+ indicator, and fura-2, respectively. Treatment with the mitochondrial uncoupler, carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP),(More)
The difference in the range of dynamic motion of the wrist between young and middle-aged men was studied. To analyse wrist function easily, a new quantitative evaluation technique for wrist circumduction using a biaxial flexible electrogoniometer was introduced. A phase plane was made from two-channel signals of the electrogoniometer, and the 'ROM (range of(More)
Ψ(x, y) denotes the number of positive integers ≤ x and free of prime factors > y. Hildebrand and Tenenbaum gave a smooth approximation formula for Ψ(x, y) in the range (log x) 1+ < y ≤ x, where is a fixed positive number ≤ 1/2. In this paper, by modifying their approximation formula, we provide a fast algorithm to approximate Ψ(x, y). The computational(More)