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Magnetic resonance tractography based on diffusion-tensor imaging was first introduced to the medical imaging community a decade ago. It has been successfully applied to a number of neurological conditions and most commonly used for preoperative planning for brain tumors and vascular malformations. Areas of active research include stroke, and dementia,(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in blood pressure regulation via the modulation of the autonomic nervous system, particularly in the central nervous system (CNS). In general, accumulating evidence suggests that NO inhibits, but ROS activates, the sympathetic nervous system. NO and ROS, however, interact with each(More)
The mechanism controlling cell-specific Ang II production in the brain remains unclear despite evidence supporting neuron-specific renin and glial- and neuronal-specific angiotensinogen (AGT) expression. We generated double-transgenic mice expressing human renin (hREN) from a neuron-specific promoter and human AGT (hAGT) from its own promoter (SRA mice) to(More)
Brain metabolism declines with age, but cerebral blood flow (CBF) is less age dependent. We therefore hypothesized that the brain temperature would decline with age, and measured the temperatures of the lateral ventricles in healthy volunteers. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) data from 45 healthy volunteers [mean (± standard deviation) age, 30.6 ± 8.66(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated that the Rho/Rho-kinase pathway plays an important role in various cellular functions, including actin cytoskeleton organization and vascular smooth muscle contraction. This pathway is also present in the central nervous system and is involved in the maintenance of dendritic spines and axon outgrowth and in the regulation of(More)
We have previously shown that long-term treatment with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation of the atherosclerotic arteries in both animals and humans. The aim of the present study was to examine whether EPA treatment also improves metabolic vasodilation evoked by exercise in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).(More)
We developed transgenic mice with targeted expression of human renin (hREN) and human angiotensinogen (hAGT) to either neurons (N-AII mice) or glia (G-AII mice) to test the hypothesis that neuronal and glial ANG II may have differential function. Since baseline blood pressure (BP) did not differ between the models (109 +/- 3 vs. 114 +/- 4 mmHg), we stressed(More)
We previously demonstrated that the overexpression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) decreases blood pressure, heart rate (HR), and sympathetic nerve activity and that these effects are enhanced in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). The aim of this study was to determine if an increase(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and anisotropy (eg, fractional anisotropy (FA)) of ischaemic tissue evolve over time. A reduction in diffusivity (ie, lambda(2) and lambda(3)) is an important marker for characterising hyperacute-stage infarction, as these parameters may reflect axonal membrane status. The study examines whether(More)
Pancreatic beta-cells exposed to hyperglycemia produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Because beta-cells are sensitive to oxidative stress, excessive ROS may cause dysfunction of beta-cells. Here we demonstrate that mitochondrial ROS suppress glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS) from beta-cells. Intracellular ROS increased 15min after exposure to high(More)