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The upper region of the outer root sheath of vibrissal follicles of adult mice contains multipotent stem cells that respond to morphogenetic signals to generate multiple hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and epidermis, i.e., all the lineages of the hairy skin. At the time when hair production ceases and when the lower region of the follicle undergoes major(More)
There are no credible data to support the notion that individual taste qualities have dedicated pathways leading from the tongue to the end of the pathway in the brain. Moreover, the insular cortex is activated not only by taste but also by non-taste information from oral stimuli. These responses are invariably excitatory, and it is difficult to determine(More)
fMRI indicated that the primary taste cortex is activated not only by taste but also by non-taste information from oral stimuli. Head movements caused by swallowing are very critical problem in fMRI and inherent difficulties to modulate taste stimuli in the mouth exist to elucidate functional segregation of human brain. We developed a novel automated taste(More)
It remains unclear how the cerebral cortex of humans perceives taste temporally, and whether or not such objective data about the brain show a correlation with the current widely used conventional methods of taste-intensity sensory evaluation. The aim of this study was to investigate the difference in the time-intensity profile between salty and sweet(More)
Histamine is a mediator of allergic inflammation released mainly from mast cells. Although histamine strongly increases vascular permeability, its precise mechanism under in vivo situation remains unknown. We here attempted to reveal how histamine induces vascular hyperpermeability focusing on the key regulators of vascular permeability, blood flow and(More)
Low-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been used as an endurance exercise model. This study aimed to test whether low-frequency NMES increases the phosphorylation of anabolic signaling molecules and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy, as seen with high-frequency NMES. Using Sprague-Dawley rats, 1 bout of exercise (with dissection(More)
Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) is produced in the lungs of patients suffering from acute lung injury (ALI). We assessed its contribution in disease progression using three different ALI mouse models. The administration of hydrochloric acid (HCl) or oleic acid (OA)+ lipopolysaccharide (LPS) caused tissue edema and neutrophil infiltration with TXA2 production in the(More)
The primary taste cortex is located in the insula. However, exactly where in the insula the human primary taste cortex is located remains a controversial issue. Human neuroimaging studies have shown prominent variation concerning the location of taste-responsive activation within the insula. A standard protocol for gustatory testing in neuroimaging studies(More)
A global phase diagram of disordered weak and strong topological insulators is established numerically. As expected, the location of the phase boundaries is renormalized by disorder, a feature recognized in the study of the so-called topological Anderson insulator. Here, we report unexpected quantization, i.e., robustness against disorder of the conductance(More)
The preservation of procedural memory in individuals with schizophrenia has been confirmed by methods such as the Tower of Hanoi, pursuit rotor and mirror reading tests. However, the cognitive procedural memory of Japanese subjects with schizophrenia has never been assessed using mirror reading. To better determine the characteristics of cognitive(More)
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