Koji Kawakami

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Interleukin (IL)-13 is a major inducer of fibrosis in many chronic infectious and autoimmune diseases. In studies of the mechanisms underlying such induction, we found that IL-13 induces transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(1) in macrophages through a two-stage process involving, first, the induction of a receptor formerly considered to function only as a(More)
Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is characterized by a high proliferation index and marked propensity for local invasion resulting in poor prognosis for these patients. To develop tumor-targeted novel therapeutic agents, here we demonstrate that SCCHN cell lines express receptors for an immune regulatory cytokine, interleukin (IL) 13. By(More)
The interleukin-13 receptor alpha2 (IL-13R alpha2) chain is a primary IL-13 binding and internalization component of the IL-13R system. Previous studies have shown that human brain tumors, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), overexpress IL-13R alpha2 chain, while normal brain cells do not express this protein or express very low levels of it. To target(More)
BACKGROUND In March 2007, a regulatory advisory was issued in Japan to restrict oseltamivir use in children aged 10-19 years because of safety concerns over abnormal behavior. The effectiveness and validity of regulatory risk minimization actions remain to be reviewed, despite their significant public health implications. To assess the impact of the(More)
The major pathological hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) and swollen neurites. Superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1-immunopositive NCIs are observed in patients with familial ALS (FALS), and TAR DNA-binding protein 43kDa (TDP-43)-immunopositive NCIs are found in patients with sporadic ALS (SALS). Protein(More)
Human malignant glioma cell lines, primary cell cultures, and tumor specimens derived from surgical samples have been shown to overexpress high-affinity receptors (R) for interleukin-4 (IL-4) in vitro and in situ. The significance of IL-4R expression on malignant glioma cells is still unclear. However, IL-4 has been reported to mediate functional effects in(More)
BACKGROUND para-Cresol, which is present in the blood mainly as p-cresyl sulphate, is a protein-bound uraemic toxin that is produced in the intestine by certain intestinal bacteria, and its production is affected by various intestinal environmental factors. Patients with end-stage renal disease who are undergoing haemodialysis (HD) often have defective(More)
Interleukin 13 receptor alpha2 (IL-13R(alpha)2) chain is highly expressed on some tumor cell lines and primary cell cultures. This receptor chain plays an important role in ligand binding and internalization. To determine the functional significance of overexpression of this chain, we stably transfected IL-13R(alpha)2 chain in human breast (MDA-MB-231) and(More)
OBJECT Interleukin-13 receptor (IL-13R)-targeted cytotoxin (IL-13-PE38) displays a potent antitumor activity against a variety of human tumors including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and, thus, this agent is being tested in the clinical trial for the treatment of recurrent GBM. In this study, the authors determined the safety and distribution kinetics of(More)
We have shown previously that a chimeric fusion protein composed of human interleukin-13 (IL-13) and Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE), termed IL-13 cytotoxin (IL13-PE38), is specifically cytotoxic to various cancer cell lines and primary cell cultures derived from a variety of solid cancers. In addition, we have shown that IL-13 mutant IL-13E13K, in which glutamic(More)