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Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease, but there is currently no effective treatment available because the etiology or mechanism of AD is still unclear. Many neurodegenerative diseases feature inclusions, which contain accumulations of misfolded, aggregated proteins. Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are the(More)
Scientific discoveries that provide strong evidence of antitumor effects in preclinical models often encounter significant delays before being tested in patients with cancer. While some of these delays have a scientific basis, others do not. We need to do better. Innovative strategies need to move into early stage clinical trials as quickly as it is safe,(More)
BACKGROUND Glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) are the pathological hallmarks of multiple system atrophy (MSA) and α-synuclein is abnormally deposited in GCIs. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is a member of the thioredoxin superfamily and is believed to accelerate the folding of disulfide-bonded proteins by catalyzing the disulfide interchange reaction,(More)
The major pathological hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) and swollen neurites. Superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1-immunopositive NCIs are observed in patients with familial ALS (FALS), and TAR DNA-binding protein 43kDa (TDP-43)-immunopositive NCIs are found in patients with sporadic ALS (SALS). Protein(More)
OBJECT Interleukin-13 receptor (IL-13R)-targeted cytotoxin (IL-13-PE38) displays a potent antitumor activity against a variety of human tumors including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and, thus, this agent is being tested in the clinical trial for the treatment of recurrent GBM. In this study, the authors determined the safety and distribution kinetics of(More)
Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, survival rates for patients with head and neck cancer have remained unchanged for the last 30 years. In an attempt to develop novel therapeutic agents, we have observed that a variety of murine and human carcinoma cells expresses high levels of receptors for interleukin 4 (IL-4) in vitro and in vivo. Here, we(More)
Bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have attracted great interest from both bench and clinical researchers because of their pluripotency and ease of expansion ex vivo. However, these cells do finally reach a senescent stage and lose their multipotent potential. Proliferation of these cells is limited up to the time of their senescence,(More)
BACKGROUND Despite an ever-improving understanding of the molecular biology of cancer, the treatment of most cancers has not changed dramatically in the past three decades and drugs that do not discriminate between tumor cells and normal tissues remain the mainstays of anticancer therapy. Since Hsp90 is typically involved in cell proliferation and survival,(More)
BACKGROUND Transferrin receptor (TfR) is a cell membrane-associated glycoprotein involved in the cellular uptake of iron and the regulation of cell growth. Recent studies have shown the elevated expression levels of TfR on cancer cells compared with normal cells. The elevated expression levels of this receptor in malignancies, which is the accessible(More)
Interleukin 13 receptor alpha2 (IL-13R(alpha)2) chain is highly expressed on some tumor cell lines and primary cell cultures. This receptor chain plays an important role in ligand binding and internalization. To determine the functional significance of overexpression of this chain, we stably transfected IL-13R(alpha)2 chain in human breast (MDA-MB-231) and(More)