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Interleukin (IL)-13 is a major inducer of fibrosis in many chronic infectious and autoimmune diseases. In studies of the mechanisms underlying such induction, we found that IL-13 induces transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(1) in macrophages through a two-stage process involving, first, the induction of a receptor formerly considered to function only as a(More)
Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is characterized by a high proliferation index and marked propensity for local invasion resulting in poor prognosis for these patients. To develop tumor-targeted novel therapeutic agents, here we demonstrate that SCCHN cell lines express receptors for an immune regulatory cytokine, interleukin (IL) 13. By(More)
The interleukin-13 receptor alpha2 (IL-13R alpha2) chain is a primary IL-13 binding and internalization component of the IL-13R system. Previous studies have shown that human brain tumors, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), overexpress IL-13R alpha2 chain, while normal brain cells do not express this protein or express very low levels of it. To target(More)
Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are the major pathological characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD). NFTs are composed of tubular filaments and paired helical filaments containing polymerized hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Another feature of AD is excessive generation of nitric oxide (NO). Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is a(More)
We have shown previously that a chimeric fusion protein composed of human interleukin-13 (IL-13) and Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE), termed IL-13 cytotoxin (IL13-PE38), is specifically cytotoxic to various cancer cell lines and primary cell cultures derived from a variety of solid cancers. In addition, we have shown that IL-13 mutant IL-13E13K, in which glutamic(More)
Apoptosis is not only essential for homeostasis in normal cells but also in cancer cells, in which it is associated with cell death mechanisms caused by novel therapeutics. We have previously reported that interleukin-13 receptors (IL-13R) are constitutively overexpressed on a majority of human malignant glioma cell lines and primary cell cultures. In(More)
BACKGROUND In March 2007, a regulatory advisory was issued in Japan to restrict oseltamivir use in children aged 10-19 years because of safety concerns over abnormal behavior. The effectiveness and validity of regulatory risk minimization actions remain to be reviewed, despite their significant public health implications. To assess the impact of the(More)
This drug utilization study aimed to investigate prescription patterns and trends for anti-rheumatic drug use in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), clarifying if patients with RA in Japan are being treated according to EULAR recommendations and ACR guidelines. We used a large-scale claims database consisting of the medical claims of employee(More)
Despite urgent need, no single strategy has been widely effective at controlling the growth of rapidly progressive solid tumors. We demonstrate here a potent antitumor therapy using modified bacterial DNA and toxin. Treatment of human head and neck cancer established as xenografts in athymic mice with immunostimulatory CpG oligodeoxynucleotides encapsulated(More)
BACKGROUND Compared with normal brain tissue cells, human malignant glioma cells express higher levels of interleukin-13 receptor (IL-13R). However, whether this receptor is expressed in situ has not been carefully examined. With IL-13R-targeted cytotoxin (IL13-PE38QQR, comprising IL-13 and a mutated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin [PE]) being tested in three(More)