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Gut commensal microbes shape the mucosal immune system by regulating the differentiation and expansion of several types of T cell. Clostridia, a dominant class of commensal microbe, can induce colonic regulatory T (Treg) cells, which have a central role in the suppression of inflammatory and allergic responses. However, the molecular mechanisms by which(More)
Intestinal microfold cells (M cells) are an enigmatic lineage of intestinal epithelial cells that initiate mucosal immune responses through the uptake and transcytosis of luminal antigens. The mechanisms of M-cell differentiation are poorly understood, as the rarity of these cells has hampered analysis. Exogenous administration of the cytokine RANKL can(More)
Manipulation of the gut microbiota holds great promise for the treatment of inflammatory and allergic diseases. Although numerous probiotic microorganisms have been identified, there remains a compelling need to discover organisms that elicit more robust therapeutic responses, are compatible with the host, and can affect a specific arm of the host immune(More)
The mucosal immune system forms the largest part of the entire immune system, containing about three-quarters of all lymphocytes and producing grams of secretory IgA daily to protect the mucosal surface from pathogens. To evoke the mucosal immune response, antigens on the mucosal surface must be transported across the epithelial barrier into organized(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Epithelial cells that cover the intestinal mucosal surface maintain immune homeostasis and tolerance in the gastrointestinal tract. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate epithelial immune functions. Epithelial cells are distinct in that they are highly polarized; this polarity is, at least in part,(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS In epithelial cells, protein sorting mechanisms regulate localization of plasma membrane proteins that generate and maintain cell polarity. The clathrin-adaptor protein (AP) complex AP-1B is expressed specifically in polarized epithelial cells, where it regulates basolateral sorting of membrane proteins. However, little is known about its(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS LL-37/human cationic antimicrobial peptide 18 (hCAP18) is a human cathelicidin with broad-spectrum antimicrobial, lipopolysaccharide binding, and chemotactic activities. This study examined the role of LL-37/hCAP18 in gastric innate immune defense by characterizing its constitutive and regulated expression by human gastric mucosa and its(More)
Cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (mCRAMP), the sole murine cathelicidin, is encoded by the gene Cnlp. We show that mCRAMP expression in the intestinal tract is largely restricted to surface epithelial cells in the colon. Synthetic mCRAMP had antimicrobial activity against the murine enteric pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, which like the related(More)
Antimicrobial peptides are highly conserved evolutionarily and are thought to play an important role in innate immunity at intestinal mucosal surfaces. To better understand the role of the antimicrobial peptide human cathelicidin LL-37/human cationic antimicrobial protein 18 (hCAP18) in intestinal mucosal defense, we characterized the regulated expression(More)
Intestinal regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are necessary for the suppression of excessive immune responses to commensal bacteria. However, the molecular machinery that controls the homeostasis of intestinal Treg cells has remained largely unknown. Here we report that colonization of germ-free mice with gut microbiota upregulated expression of the(More)