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UNLABELLED Urethane is widely used as an anesthetic for animal studies because of its minimal effects on cardiovascular and respiratory systems and maintenance of spinal reflexes. Despite its usefulness in animal research, there are no reports concerning its molecular actions. We designed this study to determine whether urethane affects(More)
We assessed the effects of tramadol, a centrally acting analgesic, and its major metabolite, on neurotransmitter-gated ion channels. Tramadol binds to mu-opioid receptors with low affinity and inhibits reuptake of monoamines in the central nervous system. These actions are believed to primarily contribute to its antinociceptive effects. However, little is(More)
UNLABELLED Many inhaled anesthetics potentiate the effect of glycine on inhibitory strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in vitro, supporting the view that this receptor could mediate the immobility produced by inhaled anesthetics during noxious stimulation (i.e., would underlie minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration [MAC]). There are quantitative(More)
BACKGROUND The voltage-dependent sodium channel is the primary site of action for local anesthetics (LAs). Although systemically administered low-dose LAs have been shown to exert antihyperalgesic effects, the molecular targets responsible for these effects are not fully known and their functional effects on inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors associated(More)
PURPOSE Taurine is the most abundant amino acid in many tissues. Although taurine has been shown to be antinociceptive, in this report, our focus is to elucidate the mechanism and action site on neuropathic pain. This study used behavioural assessments to determine whether taurine attenuates neuropathic pain in the spinal cord. METHODS Chronic(More)
Hypotaurine is an intermediate in taurine biosynthesis from cysteine in astrocytes. Although hypotaurine functions as an antioxidant and organic osmolyte, its physiological role in the central nervous system remains unclear. This study used behavioral assessments to determine whether hypotaurine influenced nociceptive transmission in acute, inflammatory,(More)
BACKGROUND Gabapentin (GBP) is a prescription drug used for the treatment of neuropathic and post-operative pain. However, the mechanism by which it exerts its analgesic action is not well understood. Because intrathecal administration of GBP has been shown to exert antinociceptive effects in animal studies, we hypothesized that the spinal cord may be a(More)
Studies were made on the effects of in vivo administration of anti-CD4 mAb, anti-CD8 mAb, or a combination of both mAbs on multiplication of bacteria, the levels of serum transaminases, and mortality in mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes. Results showed that in sublethal infection, CD8+ cells enhanced the peak of bacterial multiplication and liver(More)
BACKGROUND Anesthetic mechanisms of nonhalogenated alkanes cyclopropane and butane are not understood. This study was designed to look at which neurotransmitter receptors are possible targets for these anesthetics. METHODS Effects of cyclopropane and butane on eight recombinant receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes were examined electrophysiologically.(More)
BACKGROUND The redox imbalance between nitric oxide and superoxide generated in the endothelium is thought to play a pivotal role in the development of endothelial dysfunction. A third reactive oxygen species (ROS), H2O2, is known to have both beneficial and detrimental effects on the vasculature. Nonetheless, the influence of the hydroxyl radical, a(More)