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UNLABELLED Urethane is widely used as an anesthetic for animal studies because of its minimal effects on cardiovascular and respiratory systems and maintenance of spinal reflexes. Despite its usefulness in animal research, there are no reports concerning its molecular actions. We designed this study to determine whether urethane affects(More)
To determine whether the International Revised Diagnostic Criteria for Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease is applicable to Japanese patients at the early stage of VKH disease. The medical records of 49 patients with VKH disease were studied. The patients had been examined at the Akita University School of Medicine Hospital between 1989 and 2001, and their(More)
BACKGROUND Glycinergic neurons in the spinal dorsal horn have been implicated in the inhibition of spinal pain processing in peripheral inflammation and chronic pain states. Neuronal isoform glycine transporter-2 (GlyT2) reuptakes presynaptically released glycine and regulates the glycinergic neurotransmission. In this study, we examined whether a selective(More)
PURPOSE Taurine is the most abundant amino acid in many tissues. Although taurine has been shown to be antinociceptive, in this report, our focus is to elucidate the mechanism and action site on neuropathic pain. This study used behavioural assessments to determine whether taurine attenuates neuropathic pain in the spinal cord. METHODS Chronic(More)
We assessed the effects of tramadol, a centrally acting analgesic, and its major metabolite, on neurotransmitter-gated ion channels. Tramadol binds to mu-opioid receptors with low affinity and inhibits reuptake of monoamines in the central nervous system. These actions are believed to primarily contribute to its antinociceptive effects. However, little is(More)
BACKGROUND Although the short-term benefits of a sustained virological response (SVR) to interferon-based therapies of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) are well known, the long-term consequences of SVR are less clear. AIM To assess changes in markers of disease activity and fibrosis in patients followed up to 23 years post-SVR. METHODS The first 103 SVR(More)
gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) have been shown to increase the reproduction of the Brachionus plicatilis (NH3L strain). In the present study, the endogenous presence of GABA and 5-HT in the rotifers B. plicatilis (NH3L and Kamiura strains) and Brachionus rotundiformis (Langkawi strain) were confirmed by dot blot immunoassay(More)
Glycinergic transmission has an important role in regulating nociception in the spinal cord. The glycine transporter-2 (GlyT2) is localized at presynaptic terminals of glycinergic neurons and eliminates glycine from the synaptic cleft to terminate glycinergic transmission. Systemic and intrathecal administration of GlyT2 inhibitors alleviate various types(More)
Epidural anesthesia, combined with general anesthesia, was performed in a patient with type 1 von Willebrand disease (VWD). VWD is a common inherited bleeding disorder, and an anesthetic concern in patients with VWD is susceptibility to postoperative bleeding and epidural or spinal hematoma associated with neuraxial block. After confirming the patient’s(More)