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PURPOSE To reduce uncertainty due to setup error and organ motion during radiotherapy of tumors in or near the lung, by means of real-time tumor tracking and gating of a linear accelerator. METHODS AND MATERIALS The real-time tumor-tracking system consists of four sets of diagnostic X-ray television systems (two of which offer an unobstructed view of the(More)
Himalayan glaciers are a focus of public and scientific debate. Prevailing uncertainties are of major concern because some projections of their future have serious implications for water resources. Most Himalayan glaciers are losing mass at rates similar to glaciers elsewhere, except for emerging indications of stability or mass gain in the Karakoram. A(More)
Concentrations of vitellogenin (VTG) in serum of wild male flounder (Pleuronectes yokohamae) were investigated, as a biomarker for environmental estrogens in marine waters, from January 1997 to May 1998 in Tokyo Bay, Japan (n = 130) and from a reference site in Hokkaido, Japan, far from urban areas (about 40 km from Hakodate city) from March 1997 to June(More)
Although bacterial endotoxin, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), plays a key role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), detailed mechanisms of this pathogenesis remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that upregulation of CD14 by leptin-mediated signaling is critical to hyperreactivity against endotoxin during NASH progression.(More)
Three squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) learned to reach toward a container that covered food if a cooperative trainer rewarded such reaches by giving the food. A competitive trainer kept any food found, but wrong selections by this trainer were also rewarded. The monkeys initially reached toward the baited container indiscriminately, but gradually and(More)
Despite the therapeutic potential of nucleic acid drugs, their clinical application has been limited in part by a lack of appropriate delivery systems. Exosomes or microvesicles are small endosomally derived vesicles that are secreted by a variety of cell types and tissues. Here, we show that exosomes can efficiently deliver microRNA (miRNA) to epidermal(More)
The PC12 clone, developed from a pheochromocytoma tumor of the rat adrenal medulla, has become a premiere model for the study of neuronal differentiation. When treated in culture with nanomolar concentrations of nerve growth factor, PC12 cells stop dividing, elaborate processes, become electrically excitable, and will make synapses with appropriate muscle(More)
A method for the quantitative analysis of eumelanin and pheomelanin in tissues, e.g., hair and melanoma, is described. The method is simple and rapid because it does not require the isolation of melanins from the tissues. The rationale is that permanganate oxidation of eumelanin yields pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (PTCA) which may serve as a(More)
Tyrosine 3-hydroxylase (TH, EC 1.14.16.2) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway in the nervous and endocrine systems. The TH locus was disrupted in mouse embryonic stem cells by homologous recombination. Mice heterozygous for the TH mutation were apparently normal. In these mice, TH activity in the embryos and(More)