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A method for the quantitative analysis of eumelanin and pheomelanin in tissues, e.g., hair and melanoma, is described. The method is simple and rapid because it does not require the isolation of melanins from the tissues. The rationale is that permanganate oxidation of eumelanin yields pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (PTCA) which may serve as a(More)
Despite the therapeutic potential of nucleic acid drugs, their clinical application has been limited in part by a lack of appropriate delivery systems. Exosomes or microvesicles are small endosomally derived vesicles that are secreted by a variety of cell types and tissues. Here, we show that exosomes can efficiently deliver microRNA (miRNA) to epidermal(More)
The PC12 clone, developed from a pheochromocytoma tumor of the rat adrenal medulla, has become a premiere model for the study of neuronal differentiation. When treated in culture with nanomolar concentrations of nerve growth factor, PC12 cells stop dividing, elaborate processes, become electrically excitable, and will make synapses with appropriate muscle(More)
Himalayan glaciers are a focus of public and scientific debate. Prevailing uncertainties are of major concern because some projections of their future have serious implications for water resources. Most Himalayan glaciers are losing mass at rates similar to glaciers elsewhere, except for emerging indications of stability or mass gain in the Karakoram. A(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a glial-cell-related factor, was measured for the first time in the brain (striatum) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from control and parkinsonian patients by a sensitive sandwich enzyme immunoassay. The concentrations of TNF-alpha in the brain and CSF were significantly higher in parkinsonian patients than those in(More)
Forms of human cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP), such as CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4, were expressed or co-expressed together with human NADPH-P450 reductase in Escherichia coli. When P450 was expressed alone in E. coli, the expression level of holo-P450 ranged from 310 to 1620 nmol/L of culture. The expression(More)
Concentrations of vitellogenin (VTG) in serum of wild male flounder (Pleuronectes yokohamae) were investigated, as a biomarker for environmental estrogens in marine waters, from January 1997 to May 1998 in Tokyo Bay, Japan (n = 130) and from a reference site in Hokkaido, Japan, far from urban areas (about 40 km from Hakodate city) from March 1997 to June(More)
Eight squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) were presented with 2 stimulus arrays, namely 1 and 4 pieces of food, but they received only the array other than the one they reached for. In this reverse-reward condition, all monkeys initially showed a strong preference for the larger array. One monkey learned to reach toward the smaller array when a(More)
BACKGROUND Liver fibrosis is the main predictor of the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Transient elastography (FibroScan), which measures liver stiffness, is a novel, noninvasive method to assess liver fibrosis. AIM We investigated the usefulness of liver stiffness measurement in the evaluation of liver fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty(More)
The mechanism of farnesol (FOH)-induced growth inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied in terms of its promotive effect on generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The level of ROS generation in FOH-treated cells increased five- to eightfold upon the initial 30-min incubation, while cells treated with other isoprenoid compounds, like(More)