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Tyrosine 3-hydroxylase (TH, EC 1.14.16.2) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway in the nervous and endocrine systems. The TH locus was disrupted in mouse embryonic stem cells by homologous recombination. Mice heterozygous for the TH mutation were apparently normal. In these mice, TH activity in the embryos and(More)
We present an analysis of atmospheric neutrino data from a 33.0 kiloton-year (535-day) exposure of the Super{Kamiokande detector. The data exhibit a zenith angle dependent decit of muon neutrinos which is inconsistent with expectations based on calculations of the atmospheric neutrino ux. Experimental biases and uncertainties in the prediction of neutrino(More)
We have investigated the effects of gap junction inhibitors, octanol, halothane, sodium propionate and lindane, on neuronal periodic Ca2+ transients in neuron-astrocyte coculture systems. Octanol reduced the amplitude and frequency of Ca2+ oscillations in dose-dependent manner. One mM octanol caused a complete disappearance of Ca2+ oscillations. Similar(More)
We have achieved aggressive reduction of V T variation and V DD-min by a sophisticated planar bulk MOSFET named 'Deeply Depleted Channel TM (DDC)'. The DDC transistor has been successfully integrated into an existing 65nm CMOS platform by combining layered channel formation and low temperature processing. The 2x reduction of V T variation in 65nm-node has(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a glial-cell-related factor, was measured for the first time in the brain (striatum) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from control and parkinsonian patients by a sensitive sandwich enzyme immunoassay. The concentrations of TNF-alpha in the brain and CSF were significantly higher in parkinsonian patients than those in(More)
Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) is a diffusible axonal chemorepellent that has an important role in axon guidance. Previous studies have demonstrated that Sema3a(-/-) mice have multiple developmental defects due to abnormal neuronal innervations. Here we show in mice that Sema3A is abundantly expressed in bone, and cell-based assays showed that Sema3A affected(More)
Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by widespread fasciculations, proximal-predominant muscle weakness, and atrophy followed by distal sensory involvement. To date, large families affected by HMSN-P have been reported from two different regions(More)
The distribution and origin of perivascular acetylcholinesterase-active and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-immunoreactive nerve fibers were studied in the rat lower lip by means of acetylcholinesterase histochemistry and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide immunohistochemistry. The perivascular nerve fibers stained intensely with both histochemical(More)
The mechanism of farnesol (FOH)-induced growth inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied in terms of its promotive effect on generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The level of ROS generation in FOH-treated cells increased five- to eightfold upon the initial 30-min incubation, while cells treated with other isoprenoid compounds, like(More)