Toshio Nakaki13
Masahiko Watabe8
Raymond A Swanson6
Nobuko Matsumura6
13Toshio Nakaki
8Masahiko Watabe
6Raymond A Swanson
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Uptake of the neurotransmitter glutamate is effected primarily by transporters expressed on astrocytes, and downregulation of these transporters leads to seizures and neuronal death. Neurons also express a glutamate transporter, termed excitatory amino acid carrier-1 (EAAC1), but the physiological function of this transporter remains uncertain. Here we(More)
Severe hypoglycemia causes neuronal death and cognitive impairment. Evidence suggests that hypoglycemic neuronal death involves excitotoxicity and DNA damage. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) normally functions in DNA repair, but promotes cell death when extensively activated by DNA damage. Cortical neuron cultures were subjected to glucose(More)
Hypoglycemia-induced brain injury is a significant obstacle to optimal blood glucose control in diabetic patients. Severe hypoglycemia triggers a cascade of events in vulnerable neurons that may culminate in cell death even after glucose normalization. A key event in this cascade is the activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Activated PARP-1(More)
Neurons exposed to zinc exhibit activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), an enzyme that normally participates in DNA repair but promotes cell death when extensively activated. Endogenous, vesicular zinc in brain is released to the extracellular space under conditions causing neuronal depolarization. Here, we used a rat model of insulin-induced(More)
Excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1) is a glutamate transporter expressed on mature neurons in the CNS, and is the primary route for uptake of the neuronal cysteine needed to produce glutathione (GSH). Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder pathogenically related to oxidative stress and shows GSH depletion in the substantia nigra (SN).(More)
Glutathione is an essential reductant which protects cells and is reduced in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Neurons rely mainly on extracellular cysteine for glutathione synthesis and a cysteine transporter termed excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1). However, the mechanisms underlying neuronal cysteine uptake(More)
Glutathione (GSH) is a key antioxidant that plays an important neuroprotective role in the brain. Decreased GSH levels are associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Here we show that a diurnal fluctuation of GSH levels is correlated with neuroprotective activity against oxidative stress in dopaminergic(More)
Glutathione (GSH) is an important neuroprotective molecule in the brain. The strategy to increase neuronal GSH level is a promising approach to the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the regulatory mechanism by which neuron-specific GSH synthesis is facilitated remains elusive. Glutamate transporter-associated protein 3-18 (GTRAP3-18) is an(More)
The discovery of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) leads to the hypothesis that Parkinson's disease (PD) is maybe initiated or precipitated by environmental or endogenous toxins by the mechanism similar to that of MPTP in genetically-predisposed individuals. Endogenous analogs of MPTP, such as beta-carbolines (betaCs) and(More)