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The main purpose of this paper is to study an iteration procedure for finding a common fixed point of a countable family of nonexpansive mappings in Banach spaces. We introduce a Mann type iteration procedure. Then we prove that such a sequence converges weakly to a common fixed point of a countable family of nonexpansive mappings. Moreover, we apply our(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are by-products of the cellular metabolism of oxygen consumption, produced mainly in the mitochondria. ROS are known to be highly reactive ions or free radicals containing oxygen that impair redox homeostasis and cellular functions, leading to cell death. Under physiological conditions, a variety of antioxidant systems scavenge(More)
A new method for extracting the threshold voltage of MOSFETs is presented. The threshold voltage is the gate voltage at which the second difference of the logarithm of the drain current takes a minimum value. The method is applied to a 0.6-pm NMOSFET. The threshold voltage characteristics are compared with ones measured with previous methods and it is shown(More)
Glutathione (GSH) was discovered in yeast cells in 1888. Studies of GSH in mammalian cells before the 1980s focused exclusively on its function for the detoxication of xenobiotics or for drug metabolism in the liver, in which GSH is present at its highest concentration in the body. Increasing evidence has demonstrated other important roles of GSH in the(More)
Excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1) is a glutamate transporter expressed on mature neurons in the CNS, and is the primary route for uptake of the neuronal cysteine needed to produce glutathione (GSH). Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder pathogenically related to oxidative stress and shows GSH depletion in the substantia nigra (SN).(More)
Regulation of the cysteine transporter known as excitatory amino acid carrier-1 (EAAC1) for intracellular glutathione (GSH) content was investigated using human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells as a model system. GSH content was significantly reduced by l-aspartate-beta-hydroxamate (50-250 microM), an inhibitor of both EAAC1 and GLT1, both of which are(More)
Glutathione (GSH) plays essential roles in different processes such as antioxidant defenses, cell signaling, cell proliferation, and apoptosis in the central nervous system. GSH is a tripeptide composed of glutamate, cysteine, and glycine. The concentration of cysteine in neurons is much lower than that of glutamate or glycine, so that cysteine is the(More)
Glutathione is an essential reductant which protects cells and is reduced in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Neurons rely mainly on extracellular cysteine for glutathione synthesis and a cysteine transporter termed excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1). However, the mechanisms underlying neuronal cysteine uptake(More)
Extracellular glutamate should be maintained at low levels to conserve optimal neurotransmission and prevent glutamate neurotoxicity in the brain. Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) play a pivotal role in removing extracellular glutamate in the central nervous system (CNS). Excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1) is a high-affinity Na+-dependent(More)
Glutathione (GSH) is an important neuroprotective molecule in the brain. The strategy to increase neuronal GSH level is a promising approach to the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the regulatory mechanism by which neuron-specific GSH synthesis is facilitated remains elusive. Glutamate transporter-associated protein 3-18 (GTRAP3-18) is an(More)