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The brain is among the major organs generating large amounts of reactive oxygen species and is especially susceptible to oxidative stress. Glutathione (GSH) plays critical roles as an antioxidant, enzyme cofactor, cysteine storage form, the major redox buffer, and a neuromodulator in the central nervous system. GSH deficiency has been implicated in(More)
Ultrasonography (US) was used to study intussusceptions prospectively at Kiyama Hospital in 1999 and 2000 under the classification of small bowel intussusception (SBI) and large bowel or ileo-ileo-colic intussusception (LBI). The clinical features, management, outcome and etiology were analyzed. All LBIs and SBIs with ischemic symptoms and SBIs complicated(More)
Glutathione (GSH) plays essential roles in different processes such as antioxidant defenses, cell signaling, cell proliferation, and apoptosis in the central nervous system. GSH is a tripeptide composed of glutamate, cysteine, and glycine. The concentration of cysteine in neurons is much lower than that of glutamate or glycine, so that cysteine is the(More)
We here report nine liver cirrhosis (LC) patients that underwent autologous bone marrow cell infusion (ABMI) from the peripheral vein. Subjects were patients with LC with total bilirubin of less than 3.0 mg/dl, platelet count of more than 5 (10(10)/l), and no viable hepatocellular carcinoma on diagnostic imaging. Autologous bone marrow (BM; 400 ml) was(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are by-products of the cellular metabolism of oxygen consumption, produced mainly in the mitochondria. ROS are known to be highly reactive ions or free radicals containing oxygen that impair redox homeostasis and cellular functions, leading to cell death. Under physiological conditions, a variety of antioxidant systems scavenge(More)
Glutathione (GSH) is a key antioxidant that plays an important neuroprotective role in the brain. Decreased GSH levels are associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Here we show that a diurnal fluctuation of GSH levels is correlated with neuroprotective activity against oxidative stress in dopaminergic(More)
We have developed an in vivo mouse model, the green fluorescent protein (GFP)/carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) model, and have previously reported that transplanted GFP-positive bone marrow cells (BMCs) differentiate into hepatocytes via hepatoblast intermediates. Here, we have investigated the growth factors that are closely related to the differentiation of(More)
Glutathione is an essential reductant which protects cells and is reduced in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Neurons rely mainly on extracellular cysteine for glutathione synthesis and a cysteine transporter termed excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1). However, the mechanisms underlying neuronal cysteine uptake(More)
Extracellular glutamate should be maintained at low levels to conserve optimal neurotransmission and prevent glutamate neurotoxicity in the brain. Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) play a pivotal role in removing extracellular glutamate in the central nervous system (CNS). Excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1) is a high-affinity Na+-dependent(More)
Excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1) is a glutamate transporter expressed on mature neurons in the CNS, and is the primary route for uptake of the neuronal cysteine needed to produce glutathione (GSH). Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder pathogenically related to oxidative stress and shows GSH depletion in the substantia nigra (SN).(More)