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The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene is a key tumor suppressor gene. Mutations in the gene have been found not only in most colon cancers but also in some other cancers, such as those of the liver. The APC gene product is a 312 kDa protein that has multiple domains, through which it binds to various proteins, including beta-catenin, axin, CtBP, Asefs,(More)
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates cell growth via mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), whose activation has been implicated in many human cancers. However, mTORC1's status in gastrointestinal tumors has not been characterized thoroughly. We have found that the mTORC1 pathway is activated with increased expression of(More)
The mammalian homeobox transcription factor CDX2 has key roles in intestinal development and differentiation. Heterozygous Cdx2 mice develop one or two benign hamartomas in the proximal colon, whereas heterozygous Apc(Delta716) mice develop numerous adenomatous polyps, mostly in the small intestine. Here we show that the colonic polyp number is about six(More)
BACKGROUND Unexplained miscarriage is speculated to be due to a Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance at the feto-maternal interface and immunological functions are known to be under the influence of various psychological factors. Indeed, the psycho-neuro-immuno-endocrine network has been proposed to contribute to miscarriage. To assess whether psychological disorders(More)
Metastasis is responsible for most cancer deaths. Here, we show that Aes (or Grg5) gene functions as an endogenous metastasis suppressor. Expression of Aes was decreased in liver metastases compared with primary colon tumors in both mice and humans. Aes inhibited Notch signaling by converting active Rbpj transcription complexes into repression complexes on(More)
PROBLEM To evaluate the ability of immunophenotypes of endometrial leukocytes from patients with histories of recurrent abortion to predict outcome of subsequent pregnancy. METHODS OF STUDY Seventeen women with two successive spontaneous abortions with normal karyotype in the conceptus and 15 women with male-factor infertility were studied. Subsequent(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Although the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway regulates development and progression of several types of cancer, its involvement in colon cancer remains unclear. We aimed to clarify the roles of Hh signaling in intestinal tumorigenesis. METHODS We studied expression of the Hh signaling components in the intestinal tumors of Apc(+/Delta716) mouse, a(More)
BACKGROUND Laminin-1, a multifunctional glycoprotein of the basement membrane, is thought to be important in embryogenesis, embryonic implantation, and placentation. We recently showed that serum IgG anti-laminin-1 autoantibodies (auto-Abs) are associated with recurrent first-trimester miscarriages. The present study assessed the clinical significance of(More)
To investigate the significance of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in reproduction we have compared plasma levels in normal pregnant women and patients suffering miscarriages. We examined 188 normal pregnant women and 12 pregnant women with miscarriages. Eight women with severe recurrent miscarriages (mean ± SD of previous number of miscarriages;(More)
Information concerning the prognosis of subsequent pregnancies in patients with reciprocal translocations is limited. This study was performed to determine the percentage success rate with first pregnancies after ascertainment of a carrier status. A total of 2,382 couples with a history of two or more consecutive miscarriages were studied in multicenters.(More)