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Inorganic nitrate and nitrite from endogenous or dietary sources are metabolized in vivo to nitric oxide (NO) and other bioactive nitrogen oxides. The nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway is emerging as an important mediator of blood flow regulation, cell signaling, energetics and tissue responses to hypoxia. The latest advances in our understanding of the(More)
Many epidemiologic studies have reported that dietary flavonoids provide protection against cardiovascular disease. Quercetin, a member of the bioflavonoids family, has been proposed to have anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, and anti-hypertensive properties leading to the beneficial effects against cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies demonstrated(More)
Atherosclerosis preferentially occurs in areas of turbulent blood flow and low fluid shear stress, whereas laminar blood flow and high shear stress are atheroprotective. Inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), stimulate expression of endothelial cell (EC) genes that may promote atherosclerosis. Recent findings suggest a(More)
The measurement of hemoglobin-nitric oxide (NO) adduct (HbNO) in whole blood by the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) method seems relevant for the assessment of systemic NO levels. However, ceruloplasmin and unknown radical species overlap the same magnetic field as that of HbNO. To reveal the EPR spectrum of HbNO, we then introduced the EPR signal(More)
D-amino acid oxidase (DAO), a potential risk factor for schizophrenia, has been proposed to be involved in the decreased glutamatergic neurotransmission in schizophrenia. Here we show the inhibitory effect of an antipsychotic drug, chlorpromazine, on human DAO, which is consistent with previous reports using porcine DAO, although human DAO was inhibited to(More)
We previously reported that quercetin, a bioflavonoid belonging to polyphenols, inhibited Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hypertrophy through the inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. However, we recently found that orally administered quercetin appeared in plasma as glucuronide-conjugated forms in rats(More)
Iron is an essential trace metal for most organisms. However, excess iron causes oxidative stress through production of highly toxic hydroxyl radicals via the Fenton/Haber-Weiss reaction. Iron storage in the body is reported to be associated with fat accumulation and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated the role of iron in adiposity by using KKAy mice(More)
In this study, we investigated whether orally administered nitrite is changed to NO and whether nitrite attenuates hypertension in a dose-dependent manner. We utilized a stable isotope of [15N]nitrite (15NO2-) as a source of nitrite to distinguish between endogenous nitrite and that exogenously administered and measured hemoglobin (Hb)-NO as an index of(More)
Reactive oxygen species, generated by reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions, have been recognized as one of the major mediators of ischemia and reperfusion injury in the brain. Reactive oxygen species-induced cerebral events are attributable, in part, to the change in intracellular signaling molecules including mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Big(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulates expression of endothelial cell (EC) genes that may promote atherosclerosis in part by an activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3[2H]-one), a selenoorganic compound, is effective for acute ischemic stroke; however, its effect on EC has not yet been(More)