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Inorganic nitrate and nitrite from endogenous or dietary sources are metabolized in vivo to nitric oxide (NO) and other bioactive nitrogen oxides. The nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway is emerging as an important mediator of blood flow regulation, cell signaling, energetics and tissue responses to hypoxia. The latest advances in our understanding of the(More)
Pramipexole, a novel non-ergot dopamine (DA) agonist, has been successfully applied to the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although the specific cause of PD remains unknown, recent studies have provided evidence that oxidative stress plays a role in the parthenogenesis of the disease. In the present study, we examined the effect of pramipexole on(More)
1: Ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3[2H]-one) is a selenoorganic compound exhibiting both glutathione peroxidase activity and antioxidant activity. Although it has been reported that ebselen is effective for oxidative stress-induced neuronal damage both in vivo and clinically, the precise mechanisms of the efficacy have not yet been elucidated. Thus,(More)
The measurement of hemoglobin-nitric oxide (NO) adduct (HbNO) in whole blood by the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) method seems relevant for the assessment of systemic NO levels. However, ceruloplasmin and unknown radical species overlap the same magnetic field as that of HbNO. To reveal the EPR spectrum of HbNO, we then introduced the EPR signal(More)
Many epidemiologic studies have reported that dietary flavonoids provide protection against cardiovascular disease. Quercetin, a member of the bioflavonoids family, has been proposed to have anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, and anti-hypertensive properties leading to the beneficial effects against cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies demonstrated(More)
N-beta-Alanyl-5-S-glutathionyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (5-S-GAD), an insect-derived antibacterial peptide, generates hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) that exerts antitumour activity. We have investigated the precise mechanism of H(2)O(2) production from 5-S-GAD by autoxidation aiming to understand its action toward tumour cells. Using the electron spin(More)
D-amino acid oxidase (DAO), a potential risk factor for schizophrenia, has been proposed to be involved in the decreased glutamatergic neurotransmission in schizophrenia. Here we show the inhibitory effect of an antipsychotic drug, chlorpromazine, on human DAO, which is consistent with previous reports using porcine DAO, although human DAO was inhibited to(More)
Reactive oxygen species have been known as important contributors to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Studies on the beneficial effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, on limiting infarct size induced by I/R yielded contrasting results. The present study was undertaken to compare the effect of NAC by different administration methods on(More)
Atherosclerosis preferentially occurs in areas of turbulent blood flow and low fluid shear stress, whereas laminar blood flow and high shear stress are atheroprotective. Inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), stimulate expression of endothelial cell (EC) genes that may promote atherosclerosis. Recent findings suggest a(More)
Iron is an essential trace metal for most organisms. However, excess iron causes oxidative stress through production of highly toxic hydroxyl radicals via the Fenton/Haber-Weiss reaction. Iron storage in the body is reported to be associated with fat accumulation and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated the role of iron in adiposity by using KKAy mice(More)