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OBJECTIVE Diet composition alters the metabolic states of adipocytes and hepatocytes in diabetes. The effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibition on adipose tissue inflammation and fatty liver have been obscure. We investigated the extrapancreatic effects of DPP-4 inhibition on visceral fat and the liver. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We(More)
Metal often causes delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, which are possibly mediated by accumulating T cells in the inflamed skin, called irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. However, accumulating T cells during development of a metal allergy are poorly characterized because a suitable animal model is unavailable. We have previously established novel(More)
The precise role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a target of metformin, in pancreatic β cells remains controversial, even though metformin was recently shown to enhance the expression of incretin receptors (GLP-1 and GIP receptors) in pancreatic β cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of AMPK in the regulation of incretin receptors(More)
Most conventional robust design methods assume design solutions are fixed values. Using these methods, designers set each control factor to a fixed value to maximize the robustness of objective characteristics. However, fluctuations in the objective characteristic often exceed the allowable range in a design problem. Consequently, obtaining sufficient(More)
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is an important factor in determining the clinical outcome in patients with stent placement for malignant gastric outlet obstruction but the factors associated with DGE remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether clinicopathologic data could be used to identify the factors for DGE(More)
In a curved surface design, the overall shape features that emerge from combinations of shape elements are important. However, controlling the features of the overall shape in curved profiles is difficult using conventional microscopic shape information such as dimension. Herein two types of macroscopic shape information, curvature entropy and quadrature(More)