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Motivation controls behavior [1]. A variety of food-related behaviors undergo motivational modulation by hunger, satiety, and other states [2-4]. Here we searched for critical satiation factors modulating approach to an odor associated with sugar reward in Drosophila melanogaster. We selectively manipulated different parameters associated with feeding, such(More)
OBJECTIVE Tongue movement is temporo-spatially coordinated with jaw and hyoid movements during eating and speech. As such, we evaluated: (1) the correlation between the tongue with jaw and hyoid movements during eating and speech and (2) the relative influence of the jaw and hyoid on determining tongue movement. DESIGN Lateral projection videofluorography(More)
When healthy individuals eat solid food, chewed food is usually transported to the oropharynx where it accumulates before swallowing (stage II transport). We tested the hypothesis that this transport process can be altered by volition. Eight healthy young subjects ate 8 g pieces of cookie with barium while movements were recorded with videofluorography.(More)
When eating solid food, the tongue intermittently propels triturated food to the oropharynx or valleculae, where a bolus accumulates before swallowing. The tongue motion during this food transport (stage II transport, STII) is distinctly different from that during chewing, and is more similar to the oral propulsive stage of swallowing. Therefore, we tested(More)
The soft palate moves rhythmically during feeding, but the timing and frequency of this motion are not known. We tested the hypothesis that cyclic soft palate motion is temporally linked to cyclic jaw movement. Nine healthy, asymptomatic human subjects with normal dentition ate solid food coated with barium. Videofluorographic recordings showed that(More)
Few studies have examined the intensity of muscle activity during swallowing in healthy humans. We examined selected hyoid muscles using fine wire intramuscular electromyography (EMG) during swallowing of four food consistencies. Thirteen healthy adults were studied using videofluorography and EMG of the anterior belly of digastric (ABD), geniohyoid (GH),(More)
Few studies have reported the activation sequence of the swallowing muscles in healthy human participants. We examined temporal characteristics of selected hyoid muscles using fine wire intramuscular electromyography (EMG). Thirteen healthy adults were studied using EMG of the anterior belly of digastric (ABD), geniohyoid (GH), sternohyoid (SH), and(More)
As mastication progresses, little is known about the occurrence of the stage II transport (oro-pharyngeal bolus transport). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between stage II transport and bolus aggregation in the pharynx and the number of chewing strokes. Twenty-five clinical residents with natural dentitions were recruited. The subjects(More)
When chewing solid food, part of the bolus is propelled into the oropharynx before swallowing; this is named stage II transport (St2Tr). However, the tongue movement patterns that comprise St2Tr remain unclear. We investigated coronal jaw and tongue movements using videofluorography. Fourteen healthy young adults ate 6 g each of banana, cookie, and meat(More)
This research focused on both the psychological benefits and costs of crying. We investigated the relationships of intrapersonal and interpersonal consequences of crying. Female nurses (N = 300) were requested to describe one of the most impressive negative episodes where they had cried. Then, they were asked to complete a questionnaire including a scale of(More)