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Opioid peptides were analysed in tissue extracts of various brain structures and the pituitary gland from rats sacrificed by microwave irradiation, and compared with peptide levels in tissue extracts from decapitated rats. Dynorphin A, dynorphin B and Leu-enkephalinArg6, derived from prodynorphin, and Met-enkephalinArg6Phe7 from proenkephalin, were(More)
Dynorphin A, a prodynorphin-derived peptide, is able to induce neurological dysfunction and neuronal death. To study dynorphin cytotoxicity in vitro, prodynorphin-derived peptides were added into the culture medium of nonneuronal and neuronal cells or delivered into these cells by lipofection or electroporation. Cells were unaffected by extracellular(More)
Intrathecal (i.t.) administration of big dynorphin (1-10 fmol), a prodynorphin-derived peptide consisting of dynorphin A and dynorphin B, to mice produced a characteristic behavioral response, the biting and/or licking of the hindpaw and the tail along with slight hindlimb scratching directed toward the flank, which peaked at 5-15 min after an injection.(More)
Olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) induces behavioral, physiological, and neurochemical alterations resembling clinical depression and is widely used as an animal model of depression. It has been reported that depression is a critical cause of child abuse and neglect and that maternal behavior involves dopaminergic neurons of the mesolimbic pathway. In a previous(More)
Two highly selective mu-opioid receptor agonists, endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2, have been identified and postulated to be endogenous ligands for mu-opioid receptors. Intrathecal (i.t.) administration of endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 at doses from 0.039 to 5 nmol dose-dependently produced antinociception with the paw-withdrawal test. The paw-withdrawal(More)
To understand better which voltage-dependent calcium channels (VGCCs) are involved in nociceptive neurotransmission, we investigated the pharmacological properties and distribution of VGCCs in the mouse spinal cord. A behavioral assay revealed that intrathecal injections of omega-agatoxin TK, omega-agatoxin IVA, omega-conotoxin GVIA, and SNX-482, which(More)
We investigated the antinociceptive action of amlodipine, a dihydropyridine derivative, which acts on both L- and N-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs), in mice. Intrathecal injection of amlodipine (300 nmol/kg) significantly shortened the licking time in the late phase of a formalin test, while no effect was found with another dihydropyridine(More)
We investigated the antinociceptic effects of cilnidipine, a dihydropyridine derivative which acts on both L- and N-type voltage-dependent calcium channels, in mice. Intrathecally injected cilnidipine showed significant analgesic effect in formalin test. Cilnidipine significantly suppressed N-type currents in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells. Our findings(More)