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Galectin-9 (Gal-9), a ligand for T cell Ig mucin-3 (Tim-3), induces apoptosis in cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4)(+) Tim-3(+) T helper 1 (T(H)1) cells via the Gal-9-Tim-3 pathway and negatively regulates T(H)1 immunity. In turn, Gal-9 activates dendritic cells (DC) to produce TNF-α, which promotes the T(H)1 response. We investigated the efficacy of Gal-9(More)
The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the resulting oxidative stress in mice in response to a controlled cortical impact (CCI) are typical exacerbating factors associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38 (PACAP38) is a multifunctional peptide that has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective(More)
BACKGROUND The acid suppressive effects of omeprazole (OPZ) and lansoprazole (LPZ) are influenced by the CYP2C19 polymorphism. On the other hand, some investigators have reported that acid suppressive effect of rabeprazole (RPZ) was not significantly affected by CYP2C19. The present study was designed to investigate whether the CYP2C19 genotype is related(More)
In the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus, neurogenesis persists throughout life and is upregulated following ischemia. Accumulating evidence suggests that enhanced neurogenesis stimulated by ischemic injury contributes to recovery after stroke. However, the mechanisms underlying the upregulation of neurogenesis are unclear. We have demonstrated that(More)
BACKGROUND This study aimed to describe the epidemiologic characteristics of microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) in Japan. METHODS We used the database of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) from 2006 to 2008, and analyzed data from 938 patients (MPA = 697, GPA = 241) who fulfilled the MHLW diagnostic(More)
Abdominal pain continues to pose diagnostic challenges for emergency clinicians. A 56-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our hospital due to severe abdominal pain which presented as occasional epigastric pain five months before and intermittent abdominal pain. She had a past history of ileus twice, for both of which laparotomy was performed without an(More)
The current therapeutic regimen recommended by the European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) for anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) is continuation of initially administered doses of glucocorticoids (GCs) in combination with cyclophosphamide (CYC) for 1 month followed by gradual tapering. Considering the adverse effects of(More)
The withdrawal syndrome after the cessation of μ-opioid receptor agonists remains an obstacle in the clinical treatment of pain. We recently showed that peripheral opioid receptors play a significant role in the withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent mice. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the underlying mechanism of morphine-induced(More)
It is well known that infection is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in rheumatic disease patients treated with high-dose glucocorticoids, especially in the early phase after achievement of disease remission. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for infection, with a focus on the dose of glucocorticoids administered,(More)