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The transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily of cation channels contains four temperature-sensitive channels, named TRPV1-4, that are activated by heat stimuli from warm to that in the noxious range. Recently, two other members of this superfamily, TRPA1 and TRPM8, have been cloned and characterized as possible candidates for cold transducers in(More)
Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a member of ATF/CREB family of transcription factors, is induced in a variety of stressed tissue. ATF3 regulates transcription by binding to DNA sites as a homodimer or heterodimer with Jun proteins. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression and regulation of ATF3 after axonal injury in neurons in(More)
Cold hyperalgesia is a well-documented symptom of inflammatory and neuropathic pain; however, the underlying mechanisms of this enhanced sensitivity to cold are poorly understood. A subset of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels mediates thermosensation and is expressed in sensory tissues, such as nociceptors and skin. Here we report that the(More)
We compared the distribution of the alpha-subunit mRNAs of voltage-gated sodium channels Nav1.1-1.3 and Nav1.6-1.9 and a related channel, Nax, in histochemically identified neuronal subpopulations of the rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG). In the naïve DRG, the expression of Nav1.1 and Nav1.6 was restricted to A-fiber neurons, and they were preferentially(More)
Interleukin (IL)-18 is an important regulator of innate and acquired immune responses. Here we show that both the IL-18 and IL-18 receptor (IL-18R), which are induced in spinal dorsal horn, are crucial for tactile allodynia after nerve injury. Nerve injury induced a striking increase in IL-18 and IL-18R expression in the dorsal horn, and IL-18 and IL-18R(More)
Neurotrophic factors, which support neuronal survival and growth during development of the nervous system, have been shown to play significant roles in the transmission of physiologic and pathologic pain. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), synthesized in the primary sensory neurons, is anterogradely transported to the central terminals of the primary(More)
To investigate whether activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in damaged and/or undamaged primary afferents participates in neuropathic pain after partial nerve injury, we examined the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), p38 MAPK, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in the L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG)(More)
The capsaicin receptor transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1; also known as vanilloid receptor 1) is a sensory neuron-specific ion channel that serves as a polymodal detector of pain-producing chemical and physical stimuli. It has been reported that extracellular ATP potentiates the TRPV1 currents evoked by capsaicin or protons and reduces the temperature(More)
According to the amyloid hypothesis for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease, beta-amyloid peptide (betaA) directly affects neurons, leading to neurodegeneration and tau phosphorylation. In rat hippocampal culture, betaA exposure activates tau protein kinase I/glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (TPKI/GSK-3beta), which phosphorylates tau protein into Alzheimer(More)
Multiple voltage-gated sodium channels are the primary mediators of cell excitability. They are multimers that consist of the pore-forming alpha subunit and auxiliary beta subunits. Although ion permeability and voltage sensing are primarily determined by the alpha subunit, beta subunits are important modulators of sodium channel function. The purpose of(More)