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The transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily of cation channels contains four temperature-sensitive channels, named TRPV1-4, that are activated by heat stimuli from warm to that in the noxious range. Recently, two other members of this superfamily, TRPA1 and TRPM8, have been cloned and characterized as possible candidates for cold transducers in(More)
Cold hyperalgesia is a well-documented symptom of inflammatory and neuropathic pain; however, the underlying mechanisms of this enhanced sensitivity to cold are poorly understood. A subset of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels mediates thermosensation and is expressed in sensory tissues, such as nociceptors and skin. Here we report that the(More)
We compared the distribution of the alpha-subunit mRNAs of voltage-gated sodium channels Nav1.1-1.3 and Nav1.6-1.9 and a related channel, Nax, in histochemically identified neuronal subpopulations of the rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG). In the naïve DRG, the expression of Nav1.1 and Nav1.6 was restricted to A-fiber neurons, and they were preferentially(More)
To investigate whether activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in damaged and/or undamaged primary afferents participates in neuropathic pain after partial nerve injury, we examined the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), p38 MAPK, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in the L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG)(More)
Interleukin (IL)-18 is an important regulator of innate and acquired immune responses. Here we show that both the IL-18 and IL-18 receptor (IL-18R), which are induced in spinal dorsal horn, are crucial for tactile allodynia after nerve injury. Nerve injury induced a striking increase in IL-18 and IL-18R expression in the dorsal horn, and IL-18 and IL-18R(More)
The capsaicin receptor transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1; also known as vanilloid receptor 1) is a sensory neuron-specific ion channel that serves as a polymodal detector of pain-producing chemical and physical stimuli. It has been reported that extracellular ATP potentiates the TRPV1 currents evoked by capsaicin or protons and reduces the temperature(More)
Proteinase-activated receptor (PAR) 2 is expressed on a subset of primary afferent neurons and involved in inflammatory nociception. Transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) is a sensory neuron-specific cation channel that responds to capsaicin, protons, or heat stimulus. Here, we show that TRPV1 is coexpressed with PAR2 but not with PAR1(More)
Proinflammatory agents trypsin and mast cell tryptase cleave and activate PAR2, which is expressed on sensory nerves to cause neurogenic inflammation. Transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) is an excitatory ion channel on primary sensory nerves of pain pathway. Here, we show that a functional interaction of PAR2 and TRPA1 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG)(More)
Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) is a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) that mediates intracellular signal transduction in response to a variety of stimuli. ERK is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation and in neuronal plasticity, including long-term potentiation, learning, and memory. Here, we present recently(More)
Bradykinin is an inflammatory mediator that plays a pivotal role in pain and hyperalgesia in inflamed tissues by exciting and/or sensitizing nociceptors. TRPA1 is an important component of the transduction machinery through which environmental irritants and endogenous proalgesic agents depolarize nociceptors to elicit inflammatory pain. Here, using(More)