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Amyloid beta protein (A beta), the central constituent of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, is known to exert toxic effects on cultured neurons. The role of the voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channel (VSCC) in beta (25-35) neurotoxicity was examined using rat cultured cortical and hippocampal neurons. When L-type VSCCs were blocked by application of(More)
The behavioural significance of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor/channel complex was investigated in rats, using different types of antagonists including D-2-amino-phosphonovaleric acid, (+/-)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid, 2-amino-4,5-(1,2-cyclohexyl)-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid, 7-Cl kynurenate, ifenprodil, phencyclidine(More)
The hyperosmolarity-induced changes of the apical (Vap) and basal (Vba) membrane potentials of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) were studied in an in-vitro RPE-choroid preparation of the frog. Both Vap and Vba were simultaneously hyperpolarized by hyperosmolarity at either the apical or basal side of the RPE. Hyperosmolarity at the apical side(More)
The depth profiles of the b- and d-waves of the electroretinogram were studied in the isolated frog retina placed with its receptor side up. The electrode was introduced into the retina from the receptor side and the reference electrode was placed on the vitreal side. The b-wave was maximum in amplitude in the receptor layer, and decreased as the electrode(More)
Chromosome 21 is the smallest human autosome. An extra copy of chromosome 21 causes Down syndrome, the most frequent genetic cause of signi®cant mental retardation, which affects up to 1 in 700 live births. Several anonymous loci for monogenic disorders and predispositions for common complex disorders have also been mapped to this chromosome, and loss of(More)
We carried out a postmortem examination on two Japanese patients, 64- and 80-year-old men whose survival was prolonged with an artificial respirator. They had no family history of neuropsychiatric disorders and were suspected, clinically, as having a motor neuron disease that differed from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). As well as upper and lower(More)
This investigation examined whether the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis would activate during extinction of a straight runway response. Four groups of rats were trained to run in a straight runway for 3 (for 3S and 3L groups) or 10 (for 10S and 10L groups) food pellets as a reward for either 15 (for 3S and 10S groups) or 25 (for 3L and 10L(More)
The diameter and conduction velocity of myelinated fibers in the sciatic nerve isolated from neurofilament-deficient quail ('quiver') were compared with those from wild quail. The diameter was significantly reduced in quiver, however, the frequency distribution formed three peaks as did that observed in the wild. The fibers were categorized in three groups(More)
Viral vector-mediated gene transfer has become increasingly valuable for primate brain research, in particular for application of genetic methods (e.g. optogenetics) to study neuronal circuit functions. Neuronal cell tropisms and infection patterns are viable options for obtaining viral vector-mediated transgene delivery that is selective for particular(More)
New clinical methods are proposed to assess (1) neuronal activities of the retinal inner layers including amacrine cells by means of the oscillatory potential, (2) photopic function through the rapid decay in the off-response and (3) activities of the retinal pigment epithelium through susceptibility of the standing potential of the eye to osmotic stress(More)