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Recently the mesoderm-inducing effects of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family of proteins have been widely examined. In an attemt to elucidate the functions of these proteins, porcine inhibin A and activin A (erythroid differentiation factor; EDF) were examined. Treatment of explants with activin A led to differentiation of mesodermal(More)
OBJECTIVE Most patients with schizophrenia first start with a single antipsychotic, and yet most finally end up 'switching' or using 'polypharmacy'. The objective of this study was to examine the evolution of antipsychotic switch and polypharmacy in the real-world from a longitudinal perspective. METHODS A systematic review of longitudinal antipsychotic(More)
The effects of defatted safflower seed extract and its phenolic constituents, serotonin derivatives, on atherosclerosis were studied. Ethanol-ethyl acetate extract of safflower seeds (SSE) inhibited low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation induced in vitro by an azo-containing free-radical initiator V70 or copper ions. Two serotonin derivatives(More)
We previously demonstrated that safflower seed extract (SSE) and its major antioxidant constituents, serotonin hydroxycinnamic acid amides, suppressed LDL oxidation in vitro, decreased plasma autoantibody titres to oxidized LDL and attenuated atherosclerotic lesion formation in apoE-deficient mice. In this report, we examined whether SSE, rich in serotonin(More)
The ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-soluble fraction of a methanol extract of Angelica keiskei roots exhibited cytotoxic activity against 4 human tumor cell lines, HL60 (leukemia), CRL1579 (melanoma), A549 (lung), and AZ521 (stomach). Nine chalcones (1-9), 5 coumarins (10-14), and 4 flavanones (15-18), isolated from the EtOAc-soluble fraction, were examined for their(More)
Thirty-five limonoids, including 15 of the azadiradione type (1-15), five of the gedunin type (16-20), four of the azadirachtin type (21-24), nine of the nimbin type (25-33), and two degraded limonoids (34, 35), isolated from Azadirachta indica seed extracts, were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines. Seven compounds(More)
12-O-Acetylazedarachin B (1), isolated from the fruit extract of Melia azedarach, exhibited potent cytotoxicity against leukemia (HL-60) (IC(50) 0.016 µM) and stomach (AZ521) (IC(50) 0.035 µM) cancer cell lines. Upon assessing the apoptosis-inducing activity in HL-60 cells, compound 1 exhibited induction of apoptosis detected by the observation of membrane(More)