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Paranodal axo-glial junctions are important for ion channel clustering and rapid action potential propagation in myelinated nerve fibers. Paranode formation depends on the cell adhesion molecules neurofascin (NF) 155 in glia, and a Caspr and contactin heterodimer in axons. We found that antibody to ganglioside GM1 labels paranodal regions. Autoantibodies to(More)
One specialization of vertebrate presynaptic neuronal membranes is their multifold enrichment in complex gangliosides, suggesting that these sialoglycolipids may play a major functional role in synaptic transmission. We tested this hypothesis directly by studying neuromuscular synapses of mice lacking complex gangliosides attributable to deletion of the(More)
Anti-GD1a ganglioside antibodies (Abs) are the serological hallmark of the acute motor axonal form of the post-infectious paralysis, Guillain-Barre syndrome. Development of a disease model in mice has been impeded by the weak immunogenicity of gangliosides and the apparent resistance of GD1a-containing neural membranes to anti-GD1a antibody-mediated injury.(More)
In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery converts pericentromeric transcripts into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and is required for the assembly of pericentromeric heterochromatin. Here we describe a mutation in the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). Both wild-type and mutant RNAPII localized to the(More)
Neuronal membrane gangliosides, forming a large family of sialylated glycosphingolipids, have been hypothesized to play important roles in synaptic transmission. We studied the ex vivo electrophysiological function of neuromuscular junctions of GM2/GD2-synthase*GD3-synthase compound null-mutant mice after acute removal of GM3, the only remaining ganglioside(More)
Presence of microdomains has been postulated in the cell membrane, but two-dimensional distribution of lipid molecules has been difficult to determine in the submicrometer scale. In the present paper, we examined the distribution of gangliosides GM1 and GM3, putative raft molecules in the cell membrane, by immunoelectron microscopy using quick-frozen and(More)
Sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids (gangliosides) have been believed to play a role in the regulation and protection of nervous tissues. To clarify their function in the nervous system in vivo, double knockout (DKO) mice of GM2/GD2 synthase and GD3 synthase genes were generated and abnormal behaviors were analyzed. Mutant mice exhibited reduced(More)
Gangliosides are sialylated glycosphingolipids that are present in high density on neuronal membranes, especially at synapses, where they are assumed to play functional or modulating roles. Mice lacking GM2/GD2-synthase express only the simple gangliosides GD3 and GM3 and develop progressive motor behaviour deficits upon ageing, apparently due to failing(More)
Gangliosides are considered to be involved in the maintenance and repair of nervous tissues. Recently, novel roles of gangliosides in the regulation of complement system were reported by us. In this study, we compared complement activation, inflammatory reaction and disruption of glycolipid-enriched microdomain (GEM)/rafts among various mutant mice of(More)