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Paranodal axo-glial junctions are important for ion channel clustering and rapid action potential propagation in myelinated nerve fibers. Paranode formation depends on the cell adhesion molecules neurofascin (NF) 155 in glia, and a Caspr and contactin heterodimer in axons. We found that antibody to ganglioside GM1 labels paranodal regions. Autoantibodies to(More)
Molecular mimicry between microbial and self-components is postulated as the mechanism that accounts for the antigen and tissue specificity of immune responses in postinfectious autoimmune diseases. Little direct evidence exists, and research in this area has focused principally on T cell-mediated, antipeptide responses, rather than on humoral responses to(More)
One specialization of vertebrate presynaptic neuronal membranes is their multifold enrichment in complex gangliosides, suggesting that these sialoglycolipids may play a major functional role in synaptic transmission. We tested this hypothesis directly by studying neuromuscular synapses of mice lacking complex gangliosides attributable to deletion of the(More)
O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) repairs the cytotoxic and mutagenic O6-alkylguanine produced by alkylating agents such as chemotherapeutic agents and mutagens. Recent studies have shown that in a subset of tumors, MGMT expression is inversely linked to hypermethylation of the CpG island in the promoter region; however, how the epigenetic(More)
Mitotic chromosomal dynamics is regulated by the coordinated activities of many mitotic kinases, such as cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), Aurora-B or Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), but the mechanisms of their coordination remain unknown. Here, we report that Cdk1 phosphorylates Thr 59 and Thr 388 on inner centromere protein (INCENP), which regulates the(More)
Mitotic kinases regulate cell division and its checkpoints, errors of which can lead to aneuploidy or genetic instability. One of these is Aurora-B, a key kinase that is required for chromosome alignment at the metaphase plate and for cytokinesis in mammalian cells. We report here that human Aurora-B is phosphorylated at Thr-232 through interaction with the(More)
Anti-GD1a ganglioside antibodies (Abs) are the serological hallmark of the acute motor axonal form of the post-infectious paralysis, Guillain-Barre syndrome. Development of a disease model in mice has been impeded by the weak immunogenicity of gangliosides and the apparent resistance of GD1a-containing neural membranes to anti-GD1a antibody-mediated injury.(More)
Rare types of glycosylation often occur in a domain-specific manner and are involved in specific biological processes. In particular, O-fucose glycans are reported to regulate the functions of EGF domain-containing proteins such as Notch receptors. In the course of mass spectrometric analysis of O-glycans displayed on Drosophila Notch receptors expressed in(More)
We generated double knock-out mice lacking the GM2/GD2 and the GD3 synthase gene by mating single gene mutants, and we analyzed the abnormal phenotypes of the mutant mice expressing only the GM3 ganglioside. We observed a refractory skin lesion that appeared primarily on the face of the mutant mice at 25 weeks after birth or later. Frequent scratching of(More)
Blood group P1/P2 is a glycolipid antigen system for which the genetic mechanism has not yet been clarified. We analyzed the potential of the cloned Gb3/CD77 synthase to synthesize P1 antigen, because Gb3/CD77 and P1 share a common structure, Galalpha1,4Galbeta1,4Glc (NAc)-. L cell transfectants with Gb3/CD77 synthase cDNA expressed marginal levels of P1 on(More)