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Paranodal axo-glial junctions are important for ion channel clustering and rapid action potential propagation in myelinated nerve fibers. Paranode formation depends on the cell adhesion molecules neurofascin (NF) 155 in glia, and a Caspr and contactin heterodimer in axons. We found that antibody to ganglioside GM1 labels paranodal regions. Autoantibodies to(More)
One specialization of vertebrate presynaptic neuronal membranes is their multifold enrichment in complex gangliosides, suggesting that these sialoglycolipids may play a major functional role in synaptic transmission. We tested this hypothesis directly by studying neuromuscular synapses of mice lacking complex gangliosides attributable to deletion of the(More)
Anti-GD1a ganglioside antibodies (Abs) are the serological hallmark of the acute motor axonal form of the post-infectious paralysis, Guillain-Barre syndrome. Development of a disease model in mice has been impeded by the weak immunogenicity of gangliosides and the apparent resistance of GD1a-containing neural membranes to anti-GD1a antibody-mediated injury.(More)
Gangliosides, GM3 and GM1, are suggested to accelerate the deposition of the amyloid beta-protein as amyloid angiopathy and senile plaques, respectively, in the Alzheimer brain. We investigated the profile of amyloid deposition in the brains of transgenic mice expressing a mutant amyloid precursor protein with a disrupted GM2 synthase gene, in which GM3(More)
Expression of sialyl Lewis a is known to be increased in cancers of the digestive organs. The determinant serves as a ligand for E-selectin and mediates hematogenous metastasis of cancers. In contrast, disialyl Lewis a , which has an extra sialic acid attached at the C6-position of penultimate GlcNAc in sialyl Lewis a , is expressed preferentially on(More)
Gangliosides are widely expressed sialylated glycosphingolipids with multifunctional properties in different cell types and organs. In the nervous system, they are highly enriched in both glial and neuronal membranes. Mice lacking complex gangliosides attributable to targeted ablation of the B4galnt1 gene that encodes(More)
Previous studies from this laboratory and others have suggested the evidences that acidic glycosphingolipid, ganglioside GM1 (GM1), is an endogenous regulator of high affinity nerve growth factor receptor, Trk, which is an essential factor for the normal development and differentiation of neuronal cells by forming a complex with Trk. The present study was(More)
In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery converts pericentromeric transcripts into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and is required for the assembly of pericentromeric heterochromatin. Here we describe a mutation in the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). Both wild-type and mutant RNAPII localized to the(More)
Neuronal membrane gangliosides, forming a large family of sialylated glycosphingolipids, have been hypothesized to play important roles in synaptic transmission. We studied the ex vivo electrophysiological function of neuromuscular junctions of GM2/GD2-synthase*GD3-synthase compound null-mutant mice after acute removal of GM3, the only remaining ganglioside(More)
Presence of microdomains has been postulated in the cell membrane, but two-dimensional distribution of lipid molecules has been difficult to determine in the submicrometer scale. In the present paper, we examined the distribution of gangliosides GM1 and GM3, putative raft molecules in the cell membrane, by immunoelectron microscopy using quick-frozen and(More)